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(********************************************************************)
(*                                                                  *)
(*  The Why3 Verification Platform   /   The Why3 Development Team  *)
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(*  Copyright 2010-2019   --   Inria - CNRS - Paris-Sud University  *)
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(*                                                                  *)
(*  This software is distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser  *)
(*  General Public License version 2.1, with the special exception  *)
(*  on linking described in file LICENSE.                           *)
(*                                                                  *)
(********************************************************************)

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open Ident
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exception Unsupported = Printer.Unsupported
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module C = struct
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  (* struct name, fields) *)
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  type struct_def = string * (string * ty) list

  and ty =
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    | Tvoid
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    | Tsyntax of string * ty list
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    | Tptr of ty
    | Tarray of ty * expr
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    | Tstruct of struct_def
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    | Tunion of ident * (ident * ty) list
    | Tnamed of ident (* alias from typedef *)
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    | Tnosyntax (* types that do not have a syntax, can't be printed *)
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    (* enum, const could be added *)

  (* int x=2, *y ... *)
  and names = ty * (ident * expr) list

  (* names with a single declaration *)
  and name = ty * ident * expr

  (* return type, parameter list. Variadic functions not handled. *)
  and proto = ty * (ty * ident) list

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  and binop = Band | Bor | Beq | Bne | Bassign | Blt | Ble | Bgt | Bge
  (* += and co. maybe to add *)
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  and unop = Unot | Ustar | Uaddr | Upreincr | Upostincr | Upredecr | Upostdecr
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  and expr =
    | Enothing
    | Eunop of unop * expr
    | Ebinop of binop * expr * expr
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    | Equestion of expr * expr * expr (* c ? t : e *)
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    | Ecast of ty * expr
    | Ecall of expr * expr list
    | Econst of constant
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    | Evar of ident
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    | Elikely of expr (* __builtin_expect(e,1) *)
    | Eunlikely of expr (* __builtin_expect(e,0) *)
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    | Esize_expr of expr
    | Esize_type of ty
    | Eindex of expr * expr (* Array access *)
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    | Edot of expr * string (* Field access with dot *)
    | Earrow of expr * string (* Pointer access with arrow *)
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    | Esyntax of string * ty * (ty array) * (expr*ty) list * int list
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  (* template, type and type arguments of result, typed arguments, precedence level *)
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  and constant =
    | Cint of string
    | Cfloat of string
    | Cchar of string
    | Cstring of string

  type stmt =
    | Snop
    | Sexpr of expr
    | Sblock of body
    | Sseq of stmt * stmt
    | Sif of expr * stmt * stmt
    | Swhile of expr * stmt
    | Sfor of expr * expr * expr * stmt
    | Sbreak
    | Sreturn of expr

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  and include_kind = Sys | Proj (* include <...> vs. include "..." *)
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  and definition =
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    | Dfun of ident * proto * body
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    | Dinclude of ident * include_kind
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    | Dproto of ident * proto
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    | Ddecl of names
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    | Dstruct of struct_def
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    | Dstruct_decl of string
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    | Dtypedef of ty * ident

  and body = definition list * stmt

  type file = definition list

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  exception NotAValue

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  let rec is_nop = function
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    | Snop | Sexpr Enothing -> true
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    | Sblock ([], s) -> is_nop s
    | Sseq (s1,s2) -> is_nop s1 && is_nop s2
    | _ -> false

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  let is_true = function
    | Sexpr(Econst(Cint "1")) -> true
    | _ -> false

  let is_false = function
    | Sexpr(Econst(Cint "0")) -> true
    | _ -> false

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  let rec one_stmt = function
    | Snop -> true
    | Sexpr _ -> true
    | Sblock (d,s) -> d = [] && one_stmt s
    | _ -> false

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  (** [assignify v] transforms a statement that computes a value into
     a statement that assigns that value to v *)
  let rec assignify v = function
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    | Snop -> raise NotAValue
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    | Sexpr e -> Sexpr (Ebinop (Bassign, v, e))
    | Sblock (ds, s) -> Sblock (ds, assignify v s)
    | Sseq (s1, s2) when not (is_nop s2) -> Sseq (s1, assignify v s2)
    | Sseq (s1,_) -> assignify v s1
    | Sif (c,t,e) -> Sif (c, assignify v t, assignify v e)
    | Swhile (c,s) -> Swhile (c, assignify v s) (* can this be a value ?*)
    | Sfor (e0,e1,e2,s) -> Sfor (e0,e1,e2, assignify v s)
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    | Sbreak -> raise NotAValue
    | Sreturn _ -> raise NotAValue

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  (** [get_last_expr] extracts the expression computed by the given statement.
     This is needed when loop conditions are more complex than a simple expression. *)
  let rec get_last_expr = function
    | Snop -> raise NotAValue
    | Sexpr e -> Snop, e
    | Sblock (ds,s) ->
      let s',e = get_last_expr s in
      Sblock(ds,s'), e
    | Sseq (s1,s2) when not (is_nop s2) ->
      let s', e = get_last_expr s2 in
      Sseq(s1,s'), e
    | Sseq (s1,_) -> get_last_expr s1
    | Sif (c,Sexpr t,Sexpr e) -> Snop, Equestion(c,t,e)
    | Sif _ -> raise (Unsupported "while (complex if)")
    | Swhile (_c,_s) -> raise (Unsupported "while (while) {}")
    | Sfor _ -> raise (Unsupported "while (for)")
    | Sbreak -> raise NotAValue
    | Sreturn _ -> raise NotAValue

  (** [propagate_in_expr id v] and the associated functions replace
      all instances of [id] by [v] in an
      expression/statement/definition/block. It is used for constant
      propagation to reduce the number of variables. *)
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  let rec propagate_in_expr id (v:expr) = function
    | Evar i when Ident.id_equal i id -> v
    | Evar i -> Evar i
    | Eunop (u,e) -> Eunop (u, propagate_in_expr id v e)
    | Ebinop (b,e1,e2) -> Ebinop (b,
                                  propagate_in_expr id v e1,
                                  propagate_in_expr id v e2)
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    | Equestion (c,t,e) -> Equestion(propagate_in_expr id v c,
                                     propagate_in_expr id v t,
                                     propagate_in_expr id v e)
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    | Ecast (ty,e) -> Ecast (ty, propagate_in_expr id v e)
    | Ecall (e, l) -> Ecall (propagate_in_expr id v e,
                             List.map (propagate_in_expr id v) l)
    | Esize_expr e -> Esize_expr (propagate_in_expr id v e)
    | Eindex (e1,e2) -> Eindex (propagate_in_expr id v e1,
                                propagate_in_expr id v e2)
    | Edot (e,i) -> Edot (propagate_in_expr id v e, i)
    | Earrow (e,i) -> Earrow (propagate_in_expr id v e, i)
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    | Esyntax (s,t,ta,l,p) ->
      Esyntax (s,t,ta,List.map (fun (e,t) -> (propagate_in_expr id v e),t) l,p)
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    | Enothing -> Enothing
    | Econst c -> Econst c
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    | Elikely e -> Elikely (propagate_in_expr id v e)
    | Eunlikely e -> Eunlikely (propagate_in_expr id v e)
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    | Esize_type ty -> Esize_type ty

  let rec propagate_in_stmt id v = function
    | Sexpr e -> Sexpr (propagate_in_expr id v e)
    | Sblock b -> Sblock(propagate_in_block id v b)
    | Sseq (s1,s2) -> Sseq (propagate_in_stmt id v s1,
                            propagate_in_stmt id v s2)
    | Sif (e,s1,s2) -> Sif (propagate_in_expr id v e,
                            propagate_in_stmt id v s1,
                            propagate_in_stmt id v s2)
    | Swhile (e, s) -> Swhile (propagate_in_expr id v e,
                               propagate_in_stmt id v s)
    | Sfor (e1,e2,e3,s) -> Sfor (propagate_in_expr id v e1,
                                 propagate_in_expr id v e2,
                                 propagate_in_expr id v e3,
                                 propagate_in_stmt id v s)
    | Sreturn e -> Sreturn (propagate_in_expr id v e)
    | Snop -> Snop
    | Sbreak -> Sbreak

  and propagate_in_def id v d =
    let rec aux = function
      | [] -> [], true
      | (i,e)::t ->
        if Ident.id_equal i id then (i,e)::t, false
        else let t,b = aux t in ((i,propagate_in_expr id v e)::t), b
    in
    match d with
    | Ddecl (ty,l) ->
      let l,b = aux l in
      Ddecl (ty, l), b
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    | Dinclude (i,k) -> Dinclude (i,k), true
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    | Dstruct _ -> raise (Unsupported "struct declaration inside function")
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    | Dfun _ -> raise (Unsupported "nested function")
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    | Dtypedef _ | Dproto _ | Dstruct_decl _ -> assert false
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  and propagate_in_block id v (dl, s) =
    let dl, b = List.fold_left
      (fun (dl, acc) d ->
        if acc
        then
          let d, b = propagate_in_def id v d in
          (d::dl, b)
        else (d::dl, false))
      ([],true) dl in
    (List.rev dl, if b then propagate_in_stmt id v s else s)

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  let is_empty_block s = s = Sblock([], Snop)
  let block_of_expr e = [], Sexpr e
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(** [flatten_defs d s] appends all definitions in the statement [s] to d. *)
  (* TODO check ident unicity ? *)
  let rec flatten_defs d = function
    | Sseq (s1,s2) ->
      let d, s1' = flatten_defs d s1 in
      let d, s2' = flatten_defs d s2 in
      d, Sseq(s1',s2')
    | Sblock (d',s) ->
      let d',s' = flatten_defs d' s in
      d@d', s'
    | Sif (c,t,e) ->
      let d, t' = flatten_defs d t in
      let d, e' = flatten_defs d e in
      d,Sif(c,t',e')
    | Swhile (c,s) ->
      let d, s' = flatten_defs d s in
      d, Swhile (c, s')
    | Sfor (e1,e2,e3,s) ->
      let d, s' = flatten_defs d s in
      d, Sfor(e1,e2,e3,s')
    | s -> d,s

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  let rec group_defs_by_type l =
    (* heuristic to reduce the number of lines of defs*)
    let rec group_types t1 t2 =
      match t1, t2 with
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      | Tvoid, Tvoid -> true
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      | Tsyntax (s1, l1), Tsyntax (s2, l2) ->
        List.length l1 = List.length l2
        && List.for_all2 group_types l1 l2
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        && s1 = s2
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        && (not (String.contains s1 '*'))
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      | Tptr t, Tptr t' -> group_types t t'
      | Tarray _, _ -> false
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      | Tstruct (n1, _), Tstruct (n2, _) -> n1 = n2
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      | Tunion (id1, _), Tunion (id2, _) -> id_equal id1 id2
      | Tnamed id1, Tnamed id2 -> id_equal id1 id2
      | _,_ -> false
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    in
    match l with
    | [] | [_] -> l
    | Ddecl (ty1, el1) :: Ddecl (ty2, el2) :: l'
        when group_types ty1 ty2
          -> group_defs_by_type (Ddecl(ty1, el1@el2)::l')
    | Ddecl (ty1, el1) :: Ddecl (ty2, el2) :: Ddecl (ty3, el3) :: l'
        when group_types ty1 ty3
          -> group_defs_by_type (Ddecl (ty1, el1@el3) :: Ddecl (ty2, el2) :: l')
    | Ddecl (ty1, el1) :: Ddecl (ty2, el2) :: Ddecl (ty3, el3) :: l'
        when group_types ty2 ty3
          -> group_defs_by_type (Ddecl (ty1, el1) :: Ddecl (ty2, el2@el3) :: l')
    | Ddecl (ty1, el1) :: l' ->
      Ddecl (ty1, el1) :: group_defs_by_type l'
    | _ -> l

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  let rec elim_empty_blocks = function
    | Sblock ([], s) -> elim_empty_blocks s
    | Sblock (d,s) -> Sblock (d, elim_empty_blocks s)
    | Sseq (s1,s2) -> Sseq (elim_empty_blocks s1, elim_empty_blocks s2)
    | Sif (c,t,e) -> Sif(c, elim_empty_blocks t, elim_empty_blocks e)
    | Swhile (c,s) -> Swhile(c, elim_empty_blocks s)
    | Sfor(e1,e2,e3,s) -> Sfor(e1,e2,e3,elim_empty_blocks s)
    | s -> s

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  let rec elim_nop = function
    | Sseq (s1,s2) ->
      let s1 = elim_nop s1 in
      let s2 = elim_nop s2 in
      begin match s1,s2 with
      | Snop, Snop -> Snop
      | Snop, s | s, Snop -> s
      | _ -> Sseq(s1,s2)
      end
    | Sblock (d,s) ->
      let s = elim_nop s in
      begin match d, s with
      | [], Snop -> Snop
      | _ -> Sblock(d,s)
      end
    | Sif (c,t,e) -> Sif(c, elim_nop t, elim_nop e)
    | Swhile (c,s) -> Swhile (c, elim_nop s)
    | Sfor(e1,e2,e3,s) -> Sfor(e1,e2,e3,elim_nop s)
    | s -> s

  let rec add_to_last_call params = function
    | Sblock (d,s) -> Sblock (d, add_to_last_call params s)
    | Sseq (s1,s2) when not (is_nop s2) ->
      Sseq (s1, add_to_last_call params s2)
    | Sseq (s1,_) -> add_to_last_call params s1
    | Sexpr (Ecall(fname, args)) ->
      Sexpr (Ecall(fname, params@args)) (*change name to ensure no renaming ?*)
    | Sreturn (Ecall (fname, args)) ->
      Sreturn (Ecall(fname, params@args))
    | _ -> raise (Unsupported "tuple pattern matching with too complex def")
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  let rec stmt_of_list (l: stmt list) : stmt =
    match l with
    | [] -> Snop
    | [s] -> s
    | h::t -> Sseq (h, stmt_of_list t)

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  let is_expr = function
    | Sexpr _ -> true
    | _ -> false

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  let rec simplify_expr (d,s) : expr =
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    match (d,elim_empty_blocks(elim_nop s)) with
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    | [], Sblock([],s) -> simplify_expr ([],s)
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    | [], Sexpr e -> e
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    | [], Sif(c,t,e) ->
       Equestion (c, simplify_expr([],t), simplify_expr([],e))
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    | _ -> raise (Invalid_argument "simplify_expr")

  let rec simplify_cond (cd, cs) =
    match cd,elim_empty_blocks(elim_nop cs) with
    | [], Sexpr c -> ([], Sexpr c)
    | ([], Sif (c', t', e') as b) ->
       let _,t' = simplify_cond ([], t') in
       let _,e' = simplify_cond ([], e') in
       if is_false e' && is_expr t'(* c' && t' *)
       then
         let t' = simplify_expr ([],t') in
         [], Sexpr(Ebinop(Band, c', t'))
       else if is_true e' && is_expr t' (* !c' || t' *)
       then
         let t' = simplify_expr ([],t') in
         [], Sexpr(Ebinop(Bor,Eunop(Unot,c'),t'))
       else if is_true t' && is_expr e' (* c' || e' *)
       then
         let e' = simplify_expr ([],e') in
         [], Sexpr(Ebinop(Bor,c',e'))
       else if is_false t' && is_expr e' (* !c' && e' *)
       then
         let e' = simplify_expr ([],e') in
         [], Sexpr(Ebinop(Band,Eunop(Unot,c'),e'))
       else b
    | d,s -> d, s

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(* Operator precedence, needed to compute which parentheses can be removed *)

  let prec_unop = function
    | Unot | Ustar | Uaddr | Upreincr | Upredecr -> 2
    | Upostincr  | Upostdecr -> 1

  let prec_binop = function
    | Band -> 11
    | Bor -> 11 (* really 12, but this avoids Wparentheses *)
    | Beq | Bne -> 7
    | Bassign -> 14
    | Blt | Ble | Bgt | Bge -> 6

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  let is_const_unop (u:unop) = match u with
    | Unot -> true
    | Ustar | Uaddr | Upreincr | Upostincr | Upredecr | Upostdecr -> false

  let is_const_binop (b:binop) = match b with
    | Band | Bor | Beq | Bne | Blt | Ble | Bgt | Bge -> true
    | Bassign -> false

  let rec is_const_expr = function
    | Enothing -> true
    | Eunop (u,e) -> is_const_unop u && is_const_expr e
    | Ebinop (b,e1,e2) ->
       is_const_binop b && is_const_expr e1 && is_const_expr e2
    | Equestion (c,_,_) -> is_const_expr c
    | Ecast (_,_) -> true
    | Ecall (_,_) -> false
    | Econst _ -> true
    | Evar _ -> false
    | Elikely e | Eunlikely e -> is_const_expr e
    | Esize_expr _ -> false
    | Esize_type _ -> true
    | Eindex (_,_) | Edot (_,_) | Earrow (_,_) -> false
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    | Esyntax (_,_,_,_,_) -> false
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  let rec get_const_expr (d,s) =
    let fail () = raise (Unsupported "non-constant array size") in
    if (d = [])
    then match elim_empty_blocks (elim_nop s) with
    | Sexpr e -> if is_const_expr e then e
                 else fail ()
    | Sblock (d, s) -> get_const_expr (d,s)
    | _ -> fail ()
    else fail ()

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  let rec has_unboxed_struct = function
    | Tstruct _ -> true
    | Tunion (_, lidty)  -> List.exists has_unboxed_struct (List.map snd lidty)
    | Tsyntax (_, lty) -> List.exists has_unboxed_struct lty
    | _ -> false

  let rec has_array = function
    | Tarray _ -> true
    | Tsyntax (_,lty) -> List.exists has_array lty
    | Tstruct (_, lsty) -> List.exists has_array (List.map snd lsty)
    | Tunion (_,lidty) -> List.exists has_array (List.map snd lidty)
    | _ -> false

  let rec should_not_escape = function
    | Tstruct _ -> true
    | Tarray _ -> true
    | Tunion (_, lidty)  -> List.exists should_not_escape (List.map snd lidty)
    | Tsyntax (_, lty) -> List.exists should_not_escape lty
    | _ -> false

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  let left_assoc = function
    | Band | Bor | Beq | Bne | Blt | Ble | Bgt | Bge -> true
    | Bassign -> false

  let right_assoc = function
    | Bassign -> true
    | _ -> false

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end
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type info = {
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  env         : Env.env;
  prelude     : Printer.prelude;
  thprelude   : Printer.prelude_map;
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  thinterface : Printer.interface_map;
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  blacklist   : Printer.blacklist;
  syntax      : Printer.syntax_map;
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  literal     : Printer.syntax_map; (*TODO handle literals*)
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  kn          : Pdecl.known_map;
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  prec        : (int list) Mid.t;
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}

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let debug_c_extraction = Debug.register_info_flag
                           ~desc:"C extraction"
                           "c_extraction"
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module Print = struct

  open C
  open Format
  open Printer
  open Pp

  exception Unprinted of string

  let c_keywords = ["auto"; "break"; "case"; "char"; "const"; "continue"; "default"; "do"; "double"; "else"; "enum"; "extern"; "float"; "for"; "goto"; "if"; "int"; "long"; "register"; "return"; "short"; "signed"; "sizeof"; "static"; "struct"; "switch"; "typedef"; "union"; "unsigned"; "void"; "volatile"; "while" ]

  let () = assert (List.length c_keywords = 32)

  let sanitizer = sanitizer char_to_lalpha char_to_alnumus
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  let sanitizer s = Strings.lowercase (sanitizer s)
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  let local_printer = create_ident_printer c_keywords ~sanitizer
  let global_printer = create_ident_printer c_keywords ~sanitizer
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  let print_local_ident fmt id = fprintf fmt "%s" (id_unique local_printer id)
  let print_global_ident fmt id = fprintf fmt "%s" (id_unique global_printer id)

  let clear_local_printer () = Ident.forget_all local_printer
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  let space_nolinebreak fmt () = fprintf fmt " "

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  let protect_on ?(boxed=false) x s =
    if x then "@[<1>(" ^^ s ^^ ")@]"
    else if not boxed then "@[" ^^ s ^^ "@]"
    else s
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  let extract_stars ty =
    let rec aux acc = function
      | Tptr t -> aux (acc+1) t
      | t -> (acc, t)
    in
  aux 0 ty

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  let rec print_ty ?(paren=false) fmt = function
    | Tvoid -> fprintf fmt "void"
    | Tsyntax (s, tl) ->
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      syntax_arguments s (print_ty ~paren:false) fmt tl
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    | Tptr ty -> fprintf fmt "%a *" (print_ty ~paren:true) ty
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    (* should be handled in extract_stars *)
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    | Tarray (ty, Enothing) ->
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       fprintf fmt (protect_on paren "%a *")
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         (print_ty ~paren:true) ty
    (* raise (Unprinted "printing array type with unknown size")*)
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    | Tarray (ty, expr) ->
      fprintf fmt (protect_on paren "%a[%a]")
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        (print_ty ~paren:true) ty (print_expr ~prec:1) expr
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    | Tstruct (s,_) -> fprintf fmt "struct %s" s
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    | Tunion _ -> raise (Unprinted "unions")
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    | Tnamed id -> print_global_ident fmt id
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    | Tnosyntax -> raise (Unprinted "type without syntax")

  and print_unop fmt = function
    | Unot -> fprintf fmt "!"
    | Ustar -> fprintf fmt "*"
    | Uaddr -> fprintf fmt "&"
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    | Upreincr | Upostincr -> fprintf fmt "++"
    | Upredecr | Upostdecr -> fprintf fmt "--"

  and unop_postfix = function
    | Upostincr | Upostdecr -> true
    | _ -> false
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  and print_binop fmt = function
    | Band -> fprintf fmt "&&"
    | Bor -> fprintf fmt "||"
    | Beq -> fprintf fmt "=="
    | Bne -> fprintf fmt "!="
    | Bassign -> fprintf fmt "="
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    | Blt -> fprintf fmt "<"
    | Ble -> fprintf fmt "<="
    | Bgt -> fprintf fmt ">"
    | Bge -> fprintf fmt ">="
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  and print_expr ~prec fmt = function
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    (* invariant: 0 <= prec <= 15 *)
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    | Enothing -> ()
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    | Eunop(u,e) ->
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       let p = prec_unop u in
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       if unop_postfix u
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       then fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < p) "%a%a")
              (print_expr ~prec:(p-1)) e print_unop u
       else fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < p) "%a%a")
              print_unop u (print_expr ~prec:(p-1)) e
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    | Ebinop(b,e1,e2) ->
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       let p = prec_binop b in
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       let pleft = if left_assoc b then p else p-1 in
       let pright = if right_assoc b then p else p-1 in
       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < p) "%a %a %a")
         (print_expr ~prec:pleft) e1 print_binop b (print_expr ~prec:pright) e2
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    | Equestion(c,t,e) ->
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      fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 13) "%a ? %a : %a")
        (print_expr ~prec:12) c
        (print_expr ~prec:15) t
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        (print_expr ~prec:13) e
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    | Ecast(ty, e) ->
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      fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 2) "(%a)%a")
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        (print_ty ~paren:false) ty (print_expr ~prec:2) e
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    | Ecall (Esyntax (s, _, _, [],_), l) ->
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       (* function defined in the prelude *)
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       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 1) "%s(%a)")
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         s (print_list comma (print_expr ~prec:15)) l
    | Ecall (e,l) ->
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       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 1) "%a(%a)")
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         (print_expr ~prec:1) e (print_list comma (print_expr ~prec:15)) l
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    | Econst c -> print_const fmt c
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    | Evar id -> print_local_ident fmt id
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    | Elikely e -> fprintf fmt
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                     (protect_on (prec < 1) "__builtin_expect(%a,1)")
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                     (print_expr ~prec:15) e
    | Eunlikely e -> fprintf fmt
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                       (protect_on (prec < 1) "__builtin_expect(%a,0)")
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                       (print_expr ~prec:15) e
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    | Esize_expr e ->
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       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 2) "sizeof(%a)") (print_expr ~prec:15) e
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    | Esize_type ty ->
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       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 2) "sizeof(%a)")
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         (print_ty ~paren:false) ty
    | Edot (e,s) ->
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       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec < 1) "%a.%s")
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         (print_expr ~prec:1) e s
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    | Eindex (e1, e2) ->
       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec <= 1) "%a[%a]")
                      (print_expr ~prec:1) e1
                      (print_expr ~prec:15) e2
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    | Earrow (e,s) ->
       fprintf fmt (protect_on (prec <= 1) "%a->%s")
         (print_expr ~prec:1) e s
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    | Esyntax (s, t, args, lte, pl) ->
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       if s = "%1" (*identity*)
       then begin
         assert (List.length lte = 1);
         print_expr ~prec fmt (fst (List.hd lte)) end
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       else
         let s =
           if pl = [] || prec < List.hd pl
           then Format.sprintf "(%s)" s
           else s in
         gen_syntax_arguments_typed_prec snd (fun _ -> args)
           s
           (fun p fmt (e,_t) -> print_expr ~prec:p fmt e)
           (print_ty ~paren:false) (C.Enothing,t) pl fmt lte
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  and print_const  fmt = function
    | Cint s | Cfloat s | Cchar s | Cstring s -> fprintf fmt "%s" s

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  let print_id_init ?(size=None) ~stars fmt ie =
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    (if stars > 0
    then fprintf fmt "%s " (String.make stars '*')
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     else ());
    match size, ie with
    | None, (id, Enothing) -> print_local_ident fmt id
    | None, (id,e) ->
       fprintf fmt "%a = %a"
         print_local_ident id (print_expr ~prec:(prec_binop Bassign)) e
    | Some Enothing, (id, Enothing) ->
       (* size unknown, treat as pointer *)
       fprintf fmt "* %a" print_local_ident id
    | Some e, (id, Enothing) ->
       fprintf fmt "%a[%a]" print_local_ident id (print_expr ~prec:15) e
    | Some _es, (_id, _ei) -> raise (Unsupported "array initializer")
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  let print_expr_no_paren fmt expr = print_expr ~prec:max_int fmt expr
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  let rec print_stmt ~braces fmt = function
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    | Snop | Sexpr Enothing -> Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "snop"; ()
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    | Sexpr e -> fprintf fmt "%a;" print_expr_no_paren e;
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    | Sblock ([] ,s) when not braces ->
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      (print_stmt ~braces:false) fmt s
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    | Sblock b -> fprintf fmt "@[<hov>{@\n  @[<hov>%a@]@\n}@]" print_body b
    | Sseq (s1,s2) -> fprintf fmt "%a@\n%a"
      (print_stmt ~braces:false) s1
      (print_stmt ~braces:false) s2
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    | Sif(c,t,e) when is_nop e ->
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       fprintf fmt "@[<hov 2>if (%a) {@\n@[<hov>%a@]@]@\n}"
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         print_expr_no_paren c (print_stmt ~braces:false) t
    | Sif(c,t,e) ->
       fprintf fmt
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         "@[<hov 2>if (%a) {@\n@[<hov>%a@]@]@\n@[<hov 2>} else {@\n@[<hov>%a@]@]@\n}"
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         print_expr_no_paren c
         (print_stmt ~braces:false) t
         (print_stmt ~braces:false) e
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    | Swhile (e,b) -> fprintf fmt "@[<hov 2>while (%a) {@\n@[<hov>%a@]@]@\n}"
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      print_expr_no_paren e (print_stmt ~braces:false) b
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    | Sfor (einit, etest, eincr, s) ->
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       fprintf fmt "@[<hov 2>for (%a; %a; %a) {@\n@[<hov>%a@]@\n}@]"
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         print_expr_no_paren einit
         print_expr_no_paren etest
         print_expr_no_paren eincr
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         (print_stmt ~braces:false) s
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    | Sbreak -> fprintf fmt "break;"
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    | Sreturn Enothing -> fprintf fmt "return;"
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    | Sreturn e -> fprintf fmt "return %a;" print_expr_no_paren e
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  and print_def fmt def =
    try match def with
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      | Dfun (id,(rt,args),body) ->
         let s = sprintf "%a %a(@[%a@])@ @[<hov>{@;<1 2>@[<hov>%a@]@\n}@\n@]"
                   (print_ty ~paren:false) rt
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                   print_global_ident id
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                   (print_list comma
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		      (print_pair_delim nothing space_nolinebreak nothing
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			 (print_ty ~paren:false) print_local_ident))
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	           args
                   print_body body in
         (* print into string first to print nothing in case of exception *)
         fprintf fmt "%s" s
      | Dproto (id, (rt, args)) ->
         let s = sprintf "%a %a(@[%a@]);@;"
                   (print_ty ~paren:false) rt
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                   print_global_ident id
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                   (print_list comma
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                      (print_pair_delim nothing space_nolinebreak nothing
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		         (print_ty ~paren:false) print_local_ident))
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	           args in
         fprintf fmt "%s" s
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      | Ddecl (Tarray(ty, e), lie) ->
         let s = sprintf "%a @[<hov>%a@];"
	           (print_ty ~paren:false) ty
	           (print_list comma (print_id_init ~stars:0 ~size:(Some e)))
                   lie in
         fprintf fmt "%s" s
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      | Ddecl (ty, lie) ->
         let nb, ty = extract_stars ty in
         assert (nb=0);
         let s = sprintf "%a @[<hov>%a@];"
	           (print_ty ~paren:false) ty
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	           (print_list comma (print_id_init ~stars:nb ~size:None)) lie in
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         fprintf fmt "%s" s
      | Dstruct (s, lf) ->
         let s = sprintf "struct %s@ @[<hov>{@;<1 2>@[<hov>%a@]@\n};@\n@]"
                   s
                   (print_list newline
                      (fun fmt (s,ty) -> fprintf fmt "%a %s;"
                                           (print_ty ~paren:false) ty s))
                   lf in
         fprintf fmt "%s" s
      | Dstruct_decl s ->
         fprintf fmt "struct %s;@;" s
      | Dinclude (id, Sys) ->
         fprintf fmt "#include <%s.h>@;"  (sanitizer id.id_string)
      | Dinclude (id, Proj) ->
         fprintf fmt "#include \"%s.h\"@;" (sanitizer id.id_string)
      | Dtypedef (ty,id) ->
         let s = sprintf "@[<hov>typedef@ %a@;%a;@]"
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	           (print_ty ~paren:false) ty print_global_ident id in
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         fprintf fmt "%s" s
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    with Unprinted s ->
      Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "Missed a def because : %s@." s
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  and print_body fmt (def, s) =
    if def = []
    then print_stmt ~braces:true fmt s
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    else
      print_pair_delim nothing newline nothing
        (print_list newline print_def)
        (print_stmt ~braces:true)
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        fmt (def,s)
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  let print_global_def fmt def =
    clear_local_printer ();
    print_def fmt def

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  let print_file fmt info ast =
    Mid.iter (fun _ sl -> List.iter (fprintf fmt "%s\n") sl) info.thprelude;
    newline fmt ();
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    fprintf fmt "@[<v>%a@]@." (print_list newline print_global_def) ast
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end
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module MLToC = struct

  open Ity
  open Ty
  open Expr
  open Term
  open Printer
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  open Mltree
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  open C

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  let field i = "__field_"^(string_of_int i)

  let structs : struct_def Hid.t = Hid.create 16
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  let array = create_attribute "ex:array"
  let array_mk = create_attribute "ex:array_make"
  let likely = create_attribute "ex:likely"
  let unlikely = create_attribute "ex:unlikely"

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  let rec ty_of_ty info ty = (*FIXME try to use only ML tys*)
    match ty.ty_node with
    | Tyvar v ->
      begin match query_syntax info.syntax v.tv_name
        with
        | Some s -> C.Tsyntax (s, [])
        | None -> C.Tnamed (v.tv_name)
      end
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    | Tyapp (ts, [t]) when Sattr.mem array ts.ts_name.id_attrs ->
       Tarray (ty_of_ty info t, Enothing)
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    | Tyapp (ts, tl) ->
       begin match query_syntax info.syntax ts.ts_name
        with
        | Some s -> C.Tsyntax (s, List.map (ty_of_ty info) tl)
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        | None ->
           if tl = []
           then if is_ts_tuple ts
                then C.Tvoid
                else try Tstruct (Hid.find structs ts.ts_name)
                     with Not_found -> Tnosyntax
           else C.Tnosyntax
       end

  let rec ty_of_mlty info = function
    | Tvar { tv_name = id } ->
      begin match query_syntax info.syntax id
        with
        | Some s -> C.Tsyntax (s, [])
        | None -> C.Tnamed id
      end
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    | Tapp (id, [t]) when Sattr.mem array id.id_attrs ->
       Tarray (ty_of_mlty info t, Enothing)
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    | Tapp (id, tl) ->
       begin match query_syntax info.syntax id
        with
        | Some s -> C.Tsyntax (s, List.map (ty_of_mlty info) tl)
        | None ->
           if tl = []
           then try Tstruct (Hid.find structs id)
                with Not_found -> Tnosyntax
           else Tnosyntax
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       end
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    | Ttuple [] -> C.Tvoid
    | Ttuple _ -> raise (Unsupported "tuple parameters")

  let struct_of_rs info rs : struct_def =
    let rty = ty_of_ity rs.rs_cty.cty_result in
    match rty.ty_node with
    | Tyapp (ts, lt) ->
       assert (is_ts_tuple ts);
       let rec fields fr tys =
         match tys with
         | [] -> []
         | ty::l -> (field fr, ty_of_ty info ty)::(fields (fr+1) l) in
       let fields = fields 0 lt in
       let s = match query_syntax info.syntax rs.rs_name with
         | Some s -> s
         | None -> rs.rs_name.id_string in
       let name = Pp.sprintf "__%s_result" s in
       (name, fields)
    | _ -> assert false

  let struct_of_rs info = Wrs.memoize 17 (fun rs -> struct_of_rs info rs)
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  let ity_of_expr e = match e.e_ity with
    | I i -> i
    | _ -> assert false

  let pv_name pv = pv.pv_vs.vs_name

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  let is_constructor rs its =
    List.exists (rs_equal rs) its.Pdecl.itd_constructors

  let is_struct_constructor info rs =
    let open Pdecl in
    if is_rs_tuple rs then false
    else match Mid.find_opt rs.rs_name info.kn with
      | Some { pd_node = PDtype its } ->
         List.exists (is_constructor rs) its
      | _ -> false

  let struct_of_constructor info rs =
    let open Pdecl in
    match Mid.find rs.rs_name info.kn with
    | { pd_node = PDtype its } ->
         let its = List.find (is_constructor rs) its in
         let id = its.itd_its.its_ts.ts_name in
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         (try Hid.find structs id
         with Not_found -> raise (Unsupported "bad struct"))
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    | _ -> assert false

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  type syntax_env = { in_unguarded_loop : bool;
                      computes_return_value : bool;
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                      current_function : rsymbol;
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                      ret_regs : Sreg.t;
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		      breaks : Sid.t;
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                      returns : Sid.t;
                      array_sizes : C.expr Mid.t;
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                      boxed : unit Hreg.t; (* is this struct boxed or passed by value? *)
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                    }
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  let is_true e = match e.e_node with
    | Eapp (s, []) -> rs_equal s rs_true
    | _ -> false

  let is_false e = match e.e_node with
    | Eapp (s, []) -> rs_equal s rs_false
    | _ -> false

  let is_unit = function
    | I i -> ity_equal i Ity.ity_unit
    | C _ -> false

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  let handle_likely attrs (e:C.expr) =
    let lkl = Sattr.mem likely attrs in
    let ulk = Sattr.mem unlikely attrs in
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    if lkl
    then (if ulk then e else Elikely e)
    else (if ulk then Eunlikely e else e)

  let reverse_likely = function
    | Elikely e -> Eunlikely e
    | Eunlikely e -> Elikely e
    | e -> e

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  (* /!\ Do not use if e may have type unit and not be Enothing *)
  let expr_or_return env e =
    if env.computes_return_value
    then Sreturn e
    else Sexpr e
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  let rec expr info env (e:Mltree.expr) : C.body =
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    assert (not e.e_effect.eff_ghost);
    match e.e_node with
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    | Eblock [] -> ([], expr_or_return env Enothing)
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    | Eblock [_] -> assert false
    | Eblock l ->
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       let env_f = { env with computes_return_value = false } in
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       let rec aux = function
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         | [] -> ([], expr_or_return env Enothing)
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         | [s] -> ([], C.Sblock (expr info env s))
         | h::t -> ([], C.Sseq (C.Sblock (expr info env_f h),
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                                C.Sblock (aux t)))
       in
       aux l
    | Eapp (rs, []) when rs_equal rs rs_true ->
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       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "true@.";
       ([],expr_or_return env (C.Econst (Cint "1")))
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    | Eapp (rs, []) when rs_equal rs rs_false ->
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       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "false@.";
       ([],expr_or_return env (C.Econst (Cint "0")))
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    | Mltree.Evar pv ->
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       let id = pv_name pv in
       let e = C.Evar id in
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       ([], expr_or_return env e)
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    | Mltree.Econst ic ->
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        let open Number in
        let n = ic.il_int in
        let n =
          if BigInt.lt n BigInt.zero then BigInt.to_string n
          else
            match ic.il_kind with
            | ILitHex -> Format.asprintf "0x%a" (print_in_base 16 None) n
            | ILitOct -> Format.asprintf "0%a" (print_in_base 8 None) n
            | _ -> BigInt.to_string n in
        let e = C.(Econst (Cint n)) in
        ([], expr_or_return env e)
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    | Eapp (rs, el)
         when is_struct_constructor info rs
              && query_syntax info.syntax rs.rs_name = None ->
       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "constructor %s@." rs.rs_name.id_string;
       let args =
         List.filter
           (fun e ->
             assert (not e.e_effect.eff_ghost);
             match e.e_ity with
             | I i when ity_equal i Ity.ity_unit -> false
             | _ -> true)
	   el in
       let env_f = { env with computes_return_value = false } in
       let args = List.map (fun e -> simplify_expr (expr info env_f e)) args in
       let ((sname, sfields) as sd) = struct_of_constructor info rs in
       let id = id_register (id_fresh sname) in
       let defs = [ Ddecl (Tstruct sd, [id, Enothing]) ] in
       let st = Evar id in
       let assign_expr f arg = Sexpr (Ebinop (Bassign, Edot (st, f), arg)) in
       let inits =
         List.fold_left2
           (fun acc (f, _ty) arg -> Sseq (acc,assign_expr f arg))
           Snop sfields args in
       (defs, Sseq (inits, expr_or_return env st))
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    | Eapp (rs, el) ->
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       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "call to %s@." rs.rs_name.id_string;
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       let args =
         List.filter
           (fun e ->
             assert (not e.e_effect.eff_ghost);
             match e.e_ity with
             | I i when ity_equal i Ity.ity_unit -> false
             | _ -> true)
	   el
       in (*FIXME still needed with masks? *)
       let env_f = { env with computes_return_value = false } in
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       if is_rs_tuple rs && env.computes_return_value
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       then begin
         let id_struct = id_register (id_fresh "result") in
         let e_struct = C.Evar id_struct in
         let d_struct = C.(Ddecl(Tstruct
                                   (struct_of_rs info env.current_function),
                                 [id_struct, Enothing])) in
         let assign i (d,s) =
           C.Sblock (d,assignify C.(Edot (e_struct, field i)) s) in
         let rec assigns args i =
           match args with
           | [] -> Snop
           | e::t ->
              let b = expr info env_f e in
              C.Sseq(assign i b, assigns t (i+1)) in
	 C.([d_struct], Sseq(assigns args 0, Sreturn(e_struct)))
	 end
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       else
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	 let e' =
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           let unboxed_params =
	     List.map
               (fun e ->
                 (simplify_expr (expr info env_f e),
                  ty_of_ty info (ty_of_ity (ity_of_expr e))))
	       args in
           let params =
             List.map2
               (fun p mle ->
                 match (p, mle) with
                 | (ce, Tstruct s), { e_ity = I { ity_node = Ityreg r }}
                      when not (Hreg.mem env.boxed r) ->
                    C.(Eunop(Uaddr, ce), Tptr (Tstruct s))
                 | p, _ -> p)
               unboxed_params args in
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           match query_syntax info.syntax rs.rs_name with
           | Some s ->
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              begin
                try
                  let _ =
                    Str.search_forward
                      (Str.regexp "[%]\\([tv]?\\)[0-9]+") s 0 in
		  let rty = ty_of_ity (match e.e_ity with
                                       | C _ -> assert false
                                       | I i -> i) in
		  let rtyargs = match rty.ty_node with
		    | Tyvar _ -> [||]
		    | Tyapp (_,args) ->
                       Array.of_list (List.map (ty_of_ty info) args)
		  in
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                  let p = Mid.find rs.rs_name info.prec in
		  C.Esyntax(s,ty_of_ty info rty, rtyargs, params, p)
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                with Not_found ->
                  if args=[]
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                  then C.(Esyntax(s, Tnosyntax, [||], [], [])) (*constant*)
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                  else
                    (*function defined in the prelude *)
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                    let cargs = List.map fst params in
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		    C.(Ecall(Esyntax(s, Tnosyntax, [||], [], []), cargs))
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              end
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           | None ->
              match rs.rs_field with
              | None ->
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	         C.(Ecall(Evar(rs.rs_name), List.map fst params))
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              | Some pv ->
                 assert (List.length el = 1);
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                 begin match unboxed_params, args with
                 | [(ce, Tstruct _)], [{ e_ity = I { ity_node = Ityreg r }}] ->
                    if Hreg.mem env.boxed r
                    then C.Earrow (ce, (pv_name pv).id_string)
                    else C.Edot (ce, (pv_name pv).id_string)
                 | _ -> C.Edot (fst (List.hd params), (pv_name pv).id_string) end
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         in
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	 C.([],
            if env.computes_return_value
	    then
              begin match e.e_ity with
              | I ity when ity_equal ity Ity.ity_unit ->
                 Sseq(Sexpr e', Sreturn Enothing)
              | I _ -> Sreturn e'
              | _ -> assert false
              end
            else Sexpr e')
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    | Eif (cond, th, el) ->
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       let cd,cs = expr info {env with computes_return_value = false} cond in
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       let t = expr info env th in
       let e = expr info env el in
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       begin match simplify_cond (cd, cs) with
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       | [], C.Sexpr c ->
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          let c = handle_likely cond.e_attrs c in
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          if is_false th && is_true el
	  then C.([], Sexpr(Eunop(Unot, c)))
	  else [], C.Sif(c,C.Sblock t, C.Sblock e)
       | cdef, cs ->
	  let cid = id_register (id_fresh "cond") in (* ? *)
	  C.Ddecl (C.Tsyntax ("int",[]), [cid, C.Enothing])::cdef,
	  C.Sseq (C.assignify (Evar cid) cs,
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                  C.Sif ((handle_likely cond.e_attrs (C.Evar cid)),
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                         C.Sblock t, C.Sblock e))
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       end
    | Ewhile (c,b) ->
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       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "while@.";
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      let cd, cs = expr info {env with computes_return_value = false} c in
      (* this is needed so that the extracted expression has all
         needed variables in its scope *)
      let cd, cs = C.flatten_defs cd cs in
      let cd = C.group_defs_by_type cd in
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      let env' = { env with
                   computes_return_value = false;
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                   in_unguarded_loop = true;
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		   breaks =
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                     if env.in_unguarded_loop
                     then Sid.empty else env.breaks } in
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      let b = expr info env' b in
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      begin match (C.simplify_cond (cd,cs)) with
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      | cd, C.Sexpr ce -> cd, C.Swhile (handle_likely c.e_attrs ce, C.Sblock b)
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      | _ ->
        begin match C.get_last_expr cs with
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        | C.Snop, e -> cd, C.(Swhile(handle_likely c.e_attrs e, C.Sblock b))
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        | s,e ->
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           let brc = reverse_likely (handle_likely c.e_attrs (Eunop(Unot,e))) in
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           cd, C.(Swhile(Econst (Cint "1"),
                         Sseq(s,
                              Sseq(Sif(brc, Sbreak, Snop),
                                   C.Sblock b))))
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        end
      end
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    | Ematch (b, [], (_::_ as xl)) ->
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      Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "TRY@.";
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      let is_while = match b.e_node with Ewhile _ -> true | _-> false in
      let breaks, returns = List.fold_left
        (fun (bs,rs) (xs, pvsl, r) ->
          let id = xs.xs_name in
          match pvsl, r.e_node with
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          | [pv], Mltree.Evar pv'
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            when pv_equal pv pv' && env.computes_return_value ->
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            (bs, Sid.add id rs)
          | [], (Eblock []) when is_unit r.e_ity && is_while ->
            (Sid.add id bs, rs)
          |_ -> raise (Unsupported "non break/return exception in try"))
        (Sid.empty, env.returns) xl
      in
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      let env' = { env with
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                   in_unguarded_loop = false;
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                   breaks = breaks;
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                   returns = returns;
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                   boxed = env.boxed;
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                 } in
      expr info env' b
    | Eraise (xs,_) when Sid.mem xs.xs_name env.breaks ->
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      Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "BREAK@.";
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      ([], C.Sbreak)
    | Eraise (xs, Some r) when Sid.mem xs.xs_name env.returns ->
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      Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "RETURN@.";
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      expr info {env with computes_return_value = true} r
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    | Eraise (xs, None) when Sid.mem xs.xs_name env.returns ->
       assert false (* nothing to pass to return *)
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    | Eraise _ -> raise (Unsupported "non break/return exception raised")
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    | Efor (i, sb, dir, eb, body) ->
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       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "FOR@.";
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       begin match i.pv_vs.vs_ty.ty_node with
       | Tyapp ({ ts_def = Range _ },_) ->
          let ty = ty_of_ty info i.pv_vs.vs_ty in
          let di = C.Ddecl(ty, [i.pv_vs.vs_name, Enothing]) in
          let ei = C.Evar (i.pv_vs.vs_name) in
          let init_e = C.Ebinop (Bassign, ei, C.Evar (sb.pv_vs.vs_name)) in
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          let incr_op = match dir with To -> C.Upreincr | DownTo -> C.Upredecr in
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          let incr_e = C.Eunop (incr_op, ei) in
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          let end_test = C.Sif (C.Ebinop (C.Beq, ei, C.Evar eb.pv_vs.vs_name),
                                Sbreak, Snop) in
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          let env' = { env with computes_return_value = false;
                                in_unguarded_loop = true;
                                breaks =
                                  if env.in_unguarded_loop
                                  then Sid.empty else env.breaks } in
          let bd, bs = expr info env' body in
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          let bs = C.Sseq (bs, end_test) in
          let init_test_op = match dir with | To -> C.Bge | DownTo -> C.Ble in
          [di], C.Sif (C.Ebinop(init_test_op,
                                C.Evar (eb.pv_vs.vs_name),
                                C.Evar (sb.pv_vs.vs_name)),
                       C.Sfor(init_e, Enothing, incr_e, C.Sblock(bd,bs)),
                       Snop)
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       |  _ -> raise (Unsupported "for loops")
       end
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    | Ematch (({e_node = Eapp(rs,_)} as e1), [Ptuple rets,e2], [])
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         when List.for_all
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                (function | Pwild (*ghost*) | Pvar _ -> true |_-> false)
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                rets
      ->
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       let id_struct = id_register (id_fresh "struct_res") in
       let e_struct = C.Evar id_struct in
       let d_struct = C.Ddecl(C.Tstruct (struct_of_rs info rs),
                              [id_struct, C.Enothing]) in
       let defs =
         List.fold_right
           (fun p acc ->
             match p with
             | Pvar vs -> C.Ddecl(ty_of_ty info vs.vs_ty,
                                  [vs.vs_name, C.Enothing])::acc
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             | Pwild -> acc
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             | _ -> assert false )
        rets [d_struct] in
       let d,s = expr info {env with computes_return_value = false} e1 in
       let s = assignify e_struct s in
       let assign vs i =
         assignify (C.Evar vs) C.(Sexpr (Edot (e_struct, field i))) in
       let rec assigns rets i =
         match rets with
         | [] -> C.Snop
         | Pvar vs :: t -> C.Sseq ((assign vs.vs_name i), (assigns t (i+1)))
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         | Pwild :: t -> assigns t (i+1) (* ghost variable, skip *)
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         | _ -> assert false in
       let assigns = assigns rets 0 in
       let b = expr info env e2 in
       d@defs, C.(Sseq(Sseq(s,assigns), Sblock b))
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    | Ematch _ -> raise (Unsupported "pattern matching")
    | Eabsurd -> assert false
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    | Eassign ([pv, ({rs_field = Some _} as rs), e2]) ->
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       let id = pv_name pv in
       let boxed =
         match pv.pv_ity.ity_node with
         | Ityreg r ->  Hreg.mem env.boxed r
         | _ -> false in
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       let t =
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         match query_syntax info.syntax rs.rs_name with
         | Some s ->
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            let _ =
              try
                Str.search_forward
                  (Str.regexp "[%]\\([tv]?\\)[0-9]+") s 0
              with Not_found -> raise (Unsupported "assign field format")  in
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            let st = if boxed
                     then C.(Eunop(Ustar, Evar id))
                     else C.Evar id in
            let params = [ st, ty_of_ty info (ty_of_ity pv.pv_ity) ] in
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            let rty = ty_of_ity rs.rs_cty.cty_result in
            let rtyargs = match rty.ty_node with
	      | Tyvar _ -> [||]
	      | Tyapp (_,args) ->
                 Array.of_list (List.map (ty_of_ty info) args)
	    in
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            let p = Mid.find rs.rs_name info.prec in
            C.Esyntax(s,ty_of_ty info rty, rtyargs, params,p)
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         | None -> if boxed
                   then C.(Earrow(Evar id, rs.rs_name.id_string))
                   else C.(Edot(Evar id, rs.rs_name.id_string)) in
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       let d,v = expr info { env with computes_return_value = false } e2 in
       d, C.(Sexpr(Ebinop(Bassign, t, simplify_expr ([],v))))
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    | Eassign _ -> raise (Unsupported "assign")
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    | Eexn (_,_,e) -> expr info env e
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    | Eignore e ->
       [], C.Sseq(C.Sblock(expr info {env with computes_return_value = false} e),
              if env.computes_return_value
              then C.Sreturn(Enothing)
              else C.Snop)
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    | Efun _ -> raise (Unsupported "higher order")
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    | Elet (Lvar (a, { e_node = Eapp (rs, [n; v]) }), e)
         when Sattr.mem array_mk rs.rs_name.id_attrs ->
       (* let a = Array.make n v in e*)
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       Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "call to an array constructor@.";
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       let aregs = ity_exp_fold Sreg.add_left Sreg.empty a.pv_ity in
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       let reset_regs = e.e_effect.eff_resets in
       let locked_regs = Sreg.union env.ret_regs reset_regs in
       if not (Sreg.is_empty (Sreg.inter aregs locked_regs))
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       then raise (Unsupported "array escaping function");
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       let env_f = { env with computes_return_value = false } in
       let n = expr info env_f n in
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       let n = get_const_expr n in
       let avar = pv_name a in
       let sizes = Mid.add avar n env.array_sizes in
       let v_ty =
         match v.e_ity with
         | I i -> ty_of_ty info (ty_of_ity i)
         | _ -> assert false in
       let loop_i = id_register (id_fresh "i") in
       let d = C.([Ddecl (Tarray (v_ty, n), [avar, Enothing]);
                   Ddecl (Tsyntax ("int", []), [loop_i, Enothing])]) in
       let i = C.Evar loop_i in
       let dv, sv = expr info env_f v in
       let eai = C.Eindex(Evar avar, i) in
       let assign_e = assignify eai sv in
       let init_loop = C.(Sfor(Ebinop(Bassign, i, Econst (Cint "0")),
                               Ebinop(Blt, i, n),
                               Eunop(Upreincr, i),
                               assign_e)) in
       let env = { env with array_sizes = sizes } in
       let d', s' = expr info env e in
       d@dv@d', Sseq (init_loop, s')
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    | Elet (ld,e) ->
       begin match ld with
       | Lvar (pv,le) -> (* not a block *)
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          let t = ty_of_ty info (ty_of_ity pv.pv_ity) in
          let aregs = ity_exp_fold Sreg.add_left Sreg.empty pv.pv_ity in
          if should_not_escape t
             && not (Sreg.is_empty (Sreg.inter aregs e.e_effect.eff_resets))
          then raise (Unsupported "array or struct escaping function");
          let (d,s) =  expr info {env with computes_return_value = false} le in
          let initblock = d, C.assignify (Evar (pv_name pv)) s in
          [ C.Ddecl (t, [pv_name pv, C.Enothing]) ],
          C.Sseq (C.Sblock initblock, C.Sblock (expr info env e))
       | Lsym _ -> raise (Unsupported "LDsym")
       | Lrec _ -> raise (Unsupported "LDrec") (* TODO for rec at least*)
       | Lany _ -> raise (Unsupported "Lany")
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       end
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  let translate_decl (info:info) (d:decl) ~header : C.definition list =
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    let translate_fun rs vl e =
      Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "print %s@." rs.rs_name.id_string;
      if rs_ghost rs
      then begin Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "is ghost@."; [] end
      else
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        let boxed = Hreg.create 16 in
        let ngvl = List.filter (fun (_,_, gh) -> not gh) vl in
        let ngargs = List.filter (fun pv -> not pv.pv_ghost) rs.rs_cty.cty_args in
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        let params =
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          List.map2 (fun (id, mlty, _gh) pv ->
              let cty = ty_of_mlty info mlty in
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              match has_unboxed_struct cty, pv.pv_ity.ity_node with
              | true, Ityreg r ->
                Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "boxing parameter %s@."
                  id.id_string;
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                Hreg.add boxed r ();
                C.Tptr cty, id
              | _ -> (cty, id)) ngvl ngargs in
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        let params = List.filter (fun (ty, _) -> ty <> C.Tvoid) params in
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        let ret_regs = ity_exp_fold Sreg.add_left Sreg.empty rs.rs_cty.cty_result in
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	let rity = rs.rs_cty.cty_result in
	let is_simple_tuple ity =
	  let arity_zero = function
	    | Ityapp(_,a,r) -> a = [] && r = []
	    | Ityreg { reg_args = a; reg_regs = r } ->
               a = [] && r = []
	    | Ityvar _ -> true
	  in
	  (match ity.ity_node with
	   | Ityapp ({its_ts = s},_,_)
             | Ityreg { reg_its = {its_ts = s}; }
	     -> is_ts_tuple s
	   | _ -> false)
	  && (ity_fold
                (fun acc ity ->
                  acc && arity_zero ity.ity_node) true ity)
	in
	(* FIXME is it necessary to have arity 0 in regions ?*)
	let rtype = ty_of_ty info (ty_of_ity rity) in
        let rtype,sdecls =
          if rtype=C.Tnosyntax && is_simple_tuple rity
          then
            let st = struct_of_rs info rs in
            C.Tstruct st, [C.Dstruct st]
          else rtype, [] in
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        if has_array rtype then raise (Unsupported "array return");
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        if header
        then sdecls@[C.Dproto (rs.rs_name, (rtype, params))]
        else
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	  let env = { computes_return_value = true;
		      in_unguarded_loop = false;
                      current_function = rs;
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                      ret_regs = ret_regs;
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		      returns = Sid.empty;
		      breaks = Sid.empty;
                      array_sizes = Mid.empty;
                      boxed = boxed;
                    } in
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	  let d,s = expr info env e in
	  let d,s = C.flatten_defs d s in
          let d = C.group_defs_by_type d in
	  let s = C.elim_nop s in
	  let s = C.elim_empty_blocks s in
	  sdecls@[C.Dfun (rs.rs_name, (rtype,params), (d,s))] in
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    try
      begin match d with
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      | Dlet (Lsym(rs, _, _, vl, e)) -> translate_fun rs vl e
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      | Dtype [{its_name=id; its_def=idef}] ->
         Debug.dprintf debug_c_extraction "PDtype %s@." id.id_string;
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         begin match query_syntax info.syntax id with
         | Some _ -> []
         | None -> begin
             match idef with
             | Some (Dalias _ty) -> []
             (*[C.Dtypedef (ty_of_mlty info ty, id)] *)
             | Some (Drecord pjl) ->
                let pjl =
                  List.filter
                    (fun (_,_,ty) ->
                      match ty with
                      | Ttuple [] -> false
                      | _ -> true)
                    pjl in
                let fields =
                  List.map
                    (fun (_, id, ty) -> (id.id_string, ty_of_mlty info ty))
                    pjl in
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