binary_search_vc_sp.mlw 3.98 KB
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(* Binary search

   A classical example. Searches a sorted array for a given value v. *)

module BinarySearch

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  use int.Int
  use int.ComputerDivision
  use ref.Ref
  use array.Array
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  (* the code and its specification *)

  exception Not_found (* raised to signal a search failure *)

  let binary_search (a : array int) (v : int) : int
    requires { forall i1 i2 : int. 0 <= i1 <= i2 < length a -> a[i1] <= a[i2] }
    ensures  { 0 <= result < length a /\ a[result] = v }
    raises   { Not_found -> forall i:int. 0 <= i < length a -> a[i] <> v }
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  = [@vc:sp]
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    let l = ref 0 in
    let u = ref (length a - 1) in
    while !l <= !u do
      invariant { 0 <= !l /\ !u < length a }
      invariant {
        forall i : int. 0 <= i < length a -> a[i] = v -> !l <= i <= !u }
      variant { !u - !l }
      let m = !l + div (!u - !l) 2 in
      assert { !l <= m <= !u };
      if a[m] < v then
        l := m + 1
      else if a[m] > v then
        u := m - 1
      else
        return m
    done;
    raise Not_found

end

(* A generalization: the midpoint is computed by some abstract function.
   The only requirement is that it lies between l and u. *)

module BinarySearchAnyMidPoint

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  use int.Int
  use ref.Ref
  use array.Array
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  exception Not_found (* raised to signal a search failure *)

  val midpoint (l:int) (u:int) : int
    requires { l <= u } ensures { l <= result <= u }

  let binary_search (a :array int) (v : int) : int
    requires { forall i1 i2 : int. 0 <= i1 <= i2 < length a -> a[i1] <= a[i2] }
    ensures  { 0 <= result < length a /\ a[result] = v }
    raises   { Not_found -> forall i:int. 0 <= i < length a -> a[i] <> v }
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  = [@vc:sp]
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    let l = ref 0 in
    let u = ref (length a - 1) in
    while !l <= !u do
      invariant { 0 <= !l /\ !u < length a }
      invariant {
        forall i : int. 0 <= i < length a -> a[i] = v -> !l <= i <= !u }
      variant { !u - !l }
      let m = midpoint !l !u in
      if a[m] < v then
        l := m + 1
      else if a[m] > v then
        u := m - 1
      else
        return m
    done;
    raise Not_found

end

(* binary search using 32-bit integers *)

module BinarySearchInt32

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  use int.Int
  use mach.int.Int32
  use ref.Ref
  use mach.array.Array32
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  (* the code and its specification *)

  exception Not_found   (* raised to signal a search failure *)

  let binary_search (a : array int32) (v : int32) : int32
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    requires { forall i1 i2 : int. 0 <= i1 <= i2 < a.length ->
               a[i1] <= a[i2] }
    ensures  { 0 <= result < a.length /\ a[result] = v }
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    raises   { Not_found ->
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                 forall i:int. 0 <= i < a.length -> a[i] <> v }
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  = [@vc:sp]
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    let l = ref 0 in
    let u = ref (length a - 1) in
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    while !l <= !u do
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      invariant { 0 <= !l /\ !u < a.length }
      invariant { forall i : int. 0 <= i < a.length ->
                  a[i] = v -> !l <= i <= !u }
      variant   { !u - !l }
      let m = !l + (!u - !l) / 2 in
      assert { !l <= m <= !u };
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      if a[m] < v then
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        l := m + 1
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      else if a[m] > v then
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        u := m - 1
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      else
        return m
    done;
    raise Not_found

end

(* A particular case with Boolean values (0 or 1) and a sentinel 1 at the end.
   We look for the first position containing a 1. *)

module BinarySearchBoolean

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  use int.Int
  use int.ComputerDivision
  use ref.Ref
  use array.Array
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  let binary_search (a: array int) : int
    requires { 0 < a.length }
    requires { forall i j. 0 <= i <= j < a.length -> 0 <= a[i] <= a[j] <= 1 }
    requires { a[a.length - 1] = 1 }
    ensures  { 0 <= result < a.length }
    ensures  { a[result] = 1 }
    ensures  { forall i. 0 <= i < result -> a[i] = 0 }
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  = [@vc:sp]
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    let lo = ref 0 in
    let hi = ref (length a - 1) in
    while !lo < !hi do
      invariant { 0 <= !lo <= !hi < a.length }
      invariant { a[!hi] = 1 }
      invariant { forall i. 0 <= i < !lo -> a[i] = 0 }
      variant   { !hi - !lo }
      let mid = !lo + div (!hi - !lo) 2 in
      if a[mid] = 1 then
        hi := mid
      else
        lo := mid + 1
    done;
    !lo

end