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(********************************************************************)
(*                                                                  *)
(*  The Why3 Verification Platform   /   The Why3 Development Team  *)
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(*  Copyright 2010-2018   --   Inria - CNRS - Paris-Sud University  *)
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(*                                                                  *)
(*  This software is distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser  *)
(*  General Public License version 2.1, with the special exception  *)
(*  on linking described in file LICENSE.                           *)
(*                                                                  *)
(********************************************************************)

(*
  - "use (im|ex)port" -> "open"
    but OCaml's open is not transitive, so requires some extra work
    to figure out all the opens

  - if a WhyML module M is extracted to something that is a signature,
    then extract "module type B_sig = ..." (as well as "module B = ...")
*)

(** Abstract syntax of ML *)

open Ident
open Ity
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open Ty
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open Term
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let clean_name fname =
  (* TODO: replace with Filename.remove_extension
   * after migration to OCaml 4.04+ *)
  let remove_extension s =
    try Filename.chop_extension s with Invalid_argument _ -> s in
  let f = Filename.basename fname in (remove_extension f)

let module_name ?fname path t =
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  let fname = match fname, path with
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    | None, "why3"::_ -> "why3"
    | None, _   -> String.concat "__" path
    | Some f, _ -> clean_name f in
  fname ^ "__" ^ t

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module ML = struct
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  open Expr
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  open Mltree
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  let rec get_decl_name = function
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    | Dtype itdefl ->
        let add_id = function
          | Some (Ddata l)   -> List.map (fun (idc,    _) -> idc) l
          | Some (Drecord l) -> List.map (fun (_, idp, _) -> idp) l
          | _ -> [] in
        let add_td_ids {its_name = id; its_def = def} = id :: (add_id def) in
        List.flatten (List.map add_td_ids itdefl)
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    | Dlet (Lrec rdef) -> List.map (fun {rec_sym = rs} -> rs.rs_name) rdef
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    | Dlet (Lvar ({pv_vs={vs_name=id}}, _))
    | Dlet (Lsym ({rs_name=id}, _, _, _))
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    | Dlet (Lany ({rs_name=id}, _, _))
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    | Dexn ({xs_name=id}, _) -> [id]
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    | Dmodule (_, dl) -> List.concat (List.map get_decl_name dl)
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  let rec add_known_decl decl k_map id =
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    match decl with
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    | Dmodule (_, dl) ->
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        let add_decl k_map d =
          let idl = get_decl_name d in
          List.fold_left (add_known_decl d) k_map idl in
        List.fold_left add_decl k_map dl
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    | _ -> Mid.add id decl k_map
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  let rec iter_deps_ty f = function
    | Tvar _ -> ()
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    | Tapp (id, ty_l) -> f id; List.iter (iter_deps_ty f) ty_l
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    | Ttuple ty_l -> List.iter (iter_deps_ty f) ty_l

  let iter_deps_typedef f = function
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    | Ddata constrl ->
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        List.iter (fun (_, tyl) -> List.iter (iter_deps_ty f) tyl) constrl
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    | Drecord pjl -> List.iter (fun (_, _, ty) -> iter_deps_ty f ty) pjl
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    | Dalias ty -> iter_deps_ty f ty
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    | Drange _ | Dfloat _ -> ()
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  let iter_deps_its_defn f its_d =
    Opt.iter (iter_deps_typedef f) its_d.its_def

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  let iter_deps_args f =
    List.iter (fun (_, ty_arg, _) -> iter_deps_ty f ty_arg)

  let rec iter_deps_xbranch f (xs, _, e) =
    f xs.xs_name;
    iter_deps_expr f e

  and iter_deps_pat_list f patl =
    List.iter (iter_deps_pat f) patl

  and iter_deps_pat f = function
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    | Pwild | Pvar _ -> ()
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    | Papp (ls, patl) ->
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        f ls.ls_name;
        iter_deps_pat_list f patl
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    | Ptuple patl -> iter_deps_pat_list f patl
    | Por (p1, p2) ->
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        iter_deps_pat f p1;
        iter_deps_pat f p2
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    | Pas (p, _) -> iter_deps_pat f p

  and iter_deps_expr f e = match e.e_node with
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    | Econst _ | Evar _ | Eabsurd | Ehole -> ()
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    | Eapp (rs, exprl) ->
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        f rs.rs_name; List.iter (iter_deps_expr f) exprl
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    | Efun (args, e) ->
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        List.iter (fun (_, ty_arg, _) -> iter_deps_ty f ty_arg) args;
        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Elet (Lvar (_, e1), e2) ->
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        iter_deps_expr f e1;
        iter_deps_expr f e2
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    | Elet (Lsym (_, ty_result, args, e1), e2) ->
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        iter_deps_ty f ty_result;
        List.iter (fun (_, ty_arg, _) -> iter_deps_ty f ty_arg) args;
        iter_deps_expr f e1;
        iter_deps_expr f e2
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    | Elet (Lany (_, ty_result, args), e2) ->
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        iter_deps_ty f ty_result;
        List.iter (fun (_, ty_arg, _) -> iter_deps_ty f ty_arg) args;
        iter_deps_expr f e2
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    | Elet ((Lrec rdef), e) ->
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        List.iter
          (fun {rec_sym = rs; rec_args = args; rec_exp = e; rec_res = res} ->
             f rs.rs_name; iter_deps_args f args;
             iter_deps_expr f e; iter_deps_ty f res) rdef;
        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Ematch (e, branchl) ->
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        iter_deps_expr f e;
        List.iter (fun (p, e) -> iter_deps_pat f p; iter_deps_expr f e) branchl
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    | Eif (e1, e2, e3) ->
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        iter_deps_expr f e1;
        iter_deps_expr f e2;
        iter_deps_expr f e3
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    | Eblock exprl ->
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        List.iter (iter_deps_expr f) exprl
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    | Ewhile (e1, e2) ->
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        iter_deps_expr f e1;
        iter_deps_expr f e2
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    | Efor (_, _, _, _, e) ->
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        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Eraise (xs, None) ->
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        f xs.xs_name
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    | Eraise (xs, Some e) ->
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        f xs.xs_name;
        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Eexn (_xs, None, e) -> (* FIXME? How come we never do binding here? *)
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        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Eexn (_xs, Some ty, e) -> (* FIXME? How come we never do binding here? *)
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        iter_deps_ty f ty;
        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Etry (e, xbranchl) ->
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        iter_deps_expr f e;
        List.iter (iter_deps_xbranch f) xbranchl
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    | Eassign assingl ->
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        List.iter (fun (_, rs, _) -> f rs.rs_name) assingl
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    | Eignore e -> iter_deps_expr f e
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  let rec iter_deps f = function
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    | Dtype its_dl ->
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        List.iter (iter_deps_its_defn f) its_dl
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    | Dlet (Lsym (_rs, ty_result, args, e)) ->
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        iter_deps_ty f ty_result;
        iter_deps_args f args;
        iter_deps_expr f e
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    | Dlet (Lany (_rs, ty_result, args)) ->
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        iter_deps_ty f ty_result;
        iter_deps_args f args
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    | Dlet (Lrec rdef) ->
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        List.iter
          (fun {rec_sym = rs; rec_args = args; rec_exp = e; rec_res = res} ->
             f rs.rs_name; iter_deps_args f args;
             iter_deps_expr f e; iter_deps_ty f res) rdef
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    | Dlet (Lvar (_, e)) -> iter_deps_expr f e
    | Dexn (_, None) -> ()
    | Dexn (_, Some ty) -> iter_deps_ty f ty
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    | Dmodule (_, dl) -> List.iter (iter_deps f) dl
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  let mk_expr e_node e_ity e_effect e_label =
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    { e_node; e_ity; e_effect; e_label; }
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  let tunit = Ttuple []
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  let ity_unit = I Ity.ity_unit

  let is_unit = function
    | I i -> ity_equal i Ity.ity_unit
    | _ -> false
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  let enope = Eblock []

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  let mk_hole =
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    mk_expr Ehole (I Ity.ity_unit) Ity.eff_empty Slab.empty
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  let mk_var id ty ghost = (id, ty, ghost)

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  let mk_var_unit () = id_register (id_fresh "_"), tunit, true

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  let mk_its_defn id args private_ def =
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    { its_name    = id      ; its_args = args;
      its_private = private_; its_def  = def; }
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  (* smart constructors *)
  let e_unit =
    mk_expr enope (I Ity.ity_unit) Ity.eff_empty Slab.empty

  let var_defn pv e =
    Lvar (pv, e)

  let sym_defn f ty_res args e =
    Lsym (f, ty_res, args, e)

  let e_let ld e = mk_expr (Elet (ld, e))

  let e_app rs pvl =
    mk_expr (Mltree.Eapp (rs, pvl))

  let e_fun args e = mk_expr (Efun (args, e))

  let e_ignore e =
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    if is_unit e.e_ity then e
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    else mk_expr (Eignore e) ity_unit e.e_effect e.e_label
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  let e_if e1 e2 e3 =
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    mk_expr (Mltree.Eif (e1, e2, e3)) e2.e_ity
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  let e_while e1 e2 =
    mk_expr (Mltree.Ewhile (e1, e2)) ity_unit

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  let e_for pv1 pv2 dir pv3 e1 =
    mk_expr (Mltree.Efor (pv1, pv2, dir, pv3, e1)) ity_unit

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  let e_match e bl =
    mk_expr (Mltree.Ematch (e, bl))

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  let e_assign al ity eff lbl =
    if al = [] then e_unit else mk_expr (Mltree.Eassign al) ity eff lbl

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  let e_absurd =
    mk_expr Eabsurd

  let e_seq e1 e2 =
    let e = match e1.e_node, e2.e_node with
      | (Eblock [] | Ehole), e | e, (Eblock [] | Ehole) -> e
      | Eblock e1, Eblock e2 -> Eblock (e1 @ e2)
      | _, Eblock e2 -> Eblock (e1 :: e2)
      | Eblock e1, _ -> Eblock (e1 @ [e2])
      | _ -> Eblock [e1; e2] in
    mk_expr e
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  let var_list_of_pv_list pvl =
    let mk_var pv =
      mk_expr (Mltree.Evar pv) (Mltree.I pv.pv_ity) eff_empty Slab.empty in
    List.map mk_var pvl

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end
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(** Translation from Mlw to ML *)

module Translate = struct

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  open Expr
  open Pmodule
  open Pdecl
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  (* useful predicates and transformations *)
  let pv_not_ghost e = not e.pv_ghost

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  (* remove ghost components from tuple, using mask *)
  let visible_of_mask m sl = match m with
    | MaskGhost    -> assert false (* FIXME ? *)
    | MaskVisible  -> sl
    | MaskTuple ml ->
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        let add_ity acc m ity = if mask_ghost m then acc else ity :: acc in
        if List.length sl < List.length ml then sl (* FIXME ? much likely... *)
        else List.fold_left2 add_ity [] ml sl
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  (* types *)
  let rec type_ ty =
    match ty.ty_node with
    | Tyvar tvs ->
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        Mltree.Tvar tvs
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    | Tyapp (ts, tyl) when is_ts_tuple ts ->
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        Mltree.Ttuple (List.map type_ tyl)
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    | Tyapp (ts, tyl) ->
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        Mltree.Tapp (ts.ts_name, List.map type_ tyl)
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  let vsty vs =
    vs.vs_name, type_ vs.vs_ty

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  let rec filter_ghost_params p def = function
    | [] -> []
    | pv :: l ->
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        if p pv then def pv :: (filter_ghost_params p def l)
        else filter_ghost_params p def l
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  let rec filter_out_ghost_rdef = function
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    | [] -> []
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    | { rec_sym = rs; rec_rsym = rrs } :: l when rs_ghost rs || rs_ghost rrs ->
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        filter_out_ghost_rdef l
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    | rdef :: l ->
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        rdef :: filter_out_ghost_rdef l
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  let rec pat m p = match p.pat_node with
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    | Pwild ->
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        Mltree.Pwild
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    | Pvar vs when (restore_pv vs).pv_ghost ->
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        Mltree.Pwild
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    | Pvar vs ->
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        Mltree.Pvar vs
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    | Por (p1, p2) ->
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        Mltree.Por (pat m p1, pat m p2)
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    | Pas (p, vs) when (restore_pv vs).pv_ghost ->
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        pat m p
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    | Pas (p, vs) ->
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        Mltree.Pas (pat m p, vs)
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    | Papp (ls, pl) when is_fs_tuple ls ->
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        let pl = visible_of_mask m pl in
        begin match pl with
          | [] -> Mltree.Pwild
          | [p] -> pat m p
          | _ -> Mltree.Ptuple (List.map (pat m) pl) end
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    | Papp (ls, pl) ->
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        let rs = restore_rs ls in
        let args = rs.rs_cty.cty_args in
        let mk acc pv pp = if not pv.pv_ghost then pat m pp :: acc else acc in
        let pat_pl = List.fold_left2 mk [] args pl in
        Mltree.Papp (ls, List.rev pat_pl)
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  (** programs *)

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  let pv_name pv = pv.pv_vs.vs_name

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  (* individual types *)
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  let mlty_of_ity mask t =
    let rec loop t = match t.ity_node with
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      | _ when mask_equal mask MaskGhost -> ML.tunit
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      | Ityvar tvs ->
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          Mltree.Tvar tvs
      | Ityapp ({its_ts = ts}, itl, _) when is_ts_tuple ts ->
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          let itl = visible_of_mask mask itl in
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          Mltree.Ttuple (List.map loop itl)
      | Ityapp ({its_ts = ts}, itl, _) ->
          Mltree.Tapp (ts.ts_name, List.map loop itl)
      | Ityreg {reg_its = its; reg_args = args} ->
          let args = List.map loop args in
          Mltree.Tapp (its.its_ts.ts_name, args) in
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    loop t
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  let pvty pv =
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    if pv.pv_ghost then ML.mk_var (pv_name pv) ML.tunit true
    else let (vs, vs_ty) = vsty pv.pv_vs in
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      ML.mk_var vs vs_ty false
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  let for_direction = function
    | To -> Mltree.To
    | DownTo -> Mltree.DownTo
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  let isconstructor info rs =
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    match Mid.find_opt rs.rs_name info.Mltree.from_km with
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    | Some {pd_node = PDtype its} ->
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        let is_constructor its =
          List.exists (rs_equal rs) its.itd_constructors in
        List.exists is_constructor its
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    | _ -> false

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  let is_singleton_imutable itd =
    let not_g e = not (rs_ghost e) in
    let pjl = itd.itd_fields in
    let mfields = itd.itd_its.its_mfields in
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    let pv_equal_field rs = pv_equal (fd_of_rs rs) in
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    let get_mutable rs = List.exists (pv_equal_field rs) mfields in
    match filter_ghost_params not_g get_mutable pjl with
    | [is_mutable] -> not is_mutable
    | _ -> false
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  let get_record_itd info rs =
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    match Mid.find_opt rs.rs_name info.Mltree.from_km with
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    | Some {pd_node = PDtype itdl} ->
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        let f pjl_constr = List.exists (rs_equal rs) pjl_constr in
        let itd = match rs.rs_field with
          | Some _ -> List.find (fun itd -> f itd.itd_fields) itdl
          | None -> List.find (fun itd -> f itd.itd_constructors) itdl in
        if itd.itd_fields = [] then None else Some itd
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    | _ -> None

  let is_optimizable_record_itd itd =
    not itd.itd_its.its_private && is_singleton_imutable itd

  let is_optimizable_record_rs info rs =
    Opt.fold (fun _ -> is_optimizable_record_itd) false (get_record_itd info rs)

  let is_empty_record_itd itd =
    let is_ghost rs = rs_ghost rs in
    List.for_all is_ghost itd.itd_fields

  let is_empty_record info rs =
    Opt.fold (fun _ -> is_empty_record_itd) false (get_record_itd info rs)
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  let mk_eta_expansion rs pvl ({cty_args = ca; cty_effect = ce} as c) =
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    (* FIXME : effects and types of the expression in this situation *)
    let args_f =
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      let def pv =
        (pv_name pv, mlty_of_ity (mask_of_pv pv) pv.pv_ity, pv.pv_ghost) in
      filter_ghost_params pv_not_ghost def ca in
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    let args =
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      let def pv =
        ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Evar pv) (Mltree.I pv.pv_ity) eff_empty Slab.empty in
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      let args = filter_ghost_params pv_not_ghost def pvl in
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      let extra_args = List.map def ca in args @ extra_args in
    let eapp = ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Eapp (rs, args)) (Mltree.C c) ce Slab.empty in
    ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Efun (args_f, eapp)) (Mltree.C c) ce Slab.empty
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  (* function arguments *)
  let filter_params args =
    let args = List.map pvty args in
    let p (_, _, is_ghost) = not is_ghost in
    List.filter p args

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  let params = function
    | []   -> []
    | args -> let args = filter_params args in
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        if args = [] then [ML.mk_var_unit ()] else args
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  let filter_params_cty p def pvl cty_args =
    let rec loop = function
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      | [], _ -> []
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      | pv :: l1, arg :: l2 ->
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          if p pv && p arg then def pv :: loop (l1, l2) else loop (l1, l2)
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      | _ -> assert false
    in loop (pvl, cty_args)

  let app pvl cty_args =
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    let def pv =
      ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Evar pv) (Mltree.I pv.pv_ity) eff_empty Slab.empty in
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    filter_params_cty pv_not_ghost def pvl cty_args

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  (* build the set of type variables from functions arguments *)
  let rec add_tvar acc = function
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    | Mltree.Tvar tv -> Stv.add tv acc
    | Mltree.Tapp (_, tyl) | Mltree.Ttuple tyl ->
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        List.fold_left add_tvar acc tyl
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  let pv_list_of_mask pvl mask =
    let mk_pv_of_mask acc pv = function MaskGhost -> acc | _ -> pv :: acc in
    match mask with
    | MaskGhost   -> []
    | MaskVisible -> pvl
    | MaskTuple m -> assert (List.length m = List.length pvl);
        let pvl = List.fold_left2 mk_pv_of_mask [] pvl m in
        List.rev pvl
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  (* expressions *)
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  let rec expr info svar mask ({e_effect = eff; e_label = lbl} as e) =
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    assert (not (e_ghost e));
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    assert (not (mask_spill e.e_mask mask));
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    match e.e_node with
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    | Econst  _ | Evar _ | Eexec ({c_node = Cfun _}, _) | Eassign _
    | Ewhile  _ | Efor _ | Eraise _ | Eexn _ | Eabsurd when mask = MaskGhost ->
        ML.e_unit
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    | Econst c ->
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        let c = match c with Number.ConstInt c -> c | _ -> assert false in
        ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Econst c) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Evar pv -> ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Evar pv) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Elet (LDvar (_, e1), e2) when e_ghost e1 -> expr info svar mask e2
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    | Elet (LDvar (_, e1), e2) when e_ghost e2 ->
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        (* sequences are transformed into [let o = e1 in e2] by A-normal form *)
        (* FIXME? this is only the case when [e1] is effectful ? *)
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        (* assert (ity_equal ity_unit e1.e_ity); *)
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        expr info svar e1.e_mask e1
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    | Elet (LDvar (pv, e1), e2)
      when pv.pv_ghost || not (Mpv.mem pv e2.e_effect.eff_reads) ->
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        if eff_pure e1.e_effect then expr info svar mask e2
        else let e1 = ML.e_ignore (expr info svar e1.e_mask e1) in
          ML.e_seq e1 (expr info svar mask e2) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Elet (LDvar (pv, e1), e2) ->
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        let ld = ML.var_defn pv (expr info svar e1.e_mask e1) in
        ML.e_let ld (expr info svar mask e2) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
    | Elet (LDsym (rs, _), ein) when rs_ghost rs ->
        expr info svar mask ein
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    | Elet (LDsym (rs, {c_node = Cfun ef; c_cty = cty}), ein) ->
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        let args = params cty.cty_args in
        let res = mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask cty.cty_result in
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        let ld = ML.sym_defn rs res args (expr info svar ef.e_mask ef) in
        ML.e_let ld (expr info svar mask ein) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Elet (LDsym (rs, {c_node = Capp (rs_app, pvl); c_cty = cty}), ein)
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      when isconstructor info rs_app -> (* partial application of constructor *)
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        let eta_app = mk_eta_expansion rs_app pvl cty in
        let mk_func pv f = ity_func pv.pv_ity f in
        let func = List.fold_right mk_func cty.cty_args cty.cty_result in
        let res = mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask func in
        let ld = ML.sym_defn rs res [] eta_app in
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        ML.e_let ld (expr info svar mask ein) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) e.e_effect lbl
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    | Elet (LDsym (rsf, {c_node = Capp (rs_app, pvl); c_cty = cty}), ein) ->
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        (* partial application *)
        let pvl = app pvl rs_app.rs_cty.cty_args in
        let eff = cty.cty_effect in
        let eapp = ML.e_app rs_app pvl (Mltree.C cty) eff Slab.empty in
        let res = mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask cty.cty_result in
        let ld = ML.sym_defn rsf res (params cty.cty_args) eapp in
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        ML.e_let ld (expr info svar mask ein) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) e.e_effect lbl
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    | Elet (LDrec rdefl, ein) ->
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        let rdefl = filter_out_ghost_rdef rdefl in
        let def = function
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          | { rec_sym = rs1; rec_rsym = rs2;
              rec_fun = {c_node = Cfun ef; c_cty = cty} } ->
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              let res = mlty_of_ity rs1.rs_cty.cty_mask rs1.rs_cty.cty_result in
              let args = params cty.cty_args in
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              let new_svar =
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                let args' = List.map (fun (_, ty, _) -> ty) args in
                let svar  = List.fold_left add_tvar Stv.empty args' in
                add_tvar svar res in
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              let new_svar = Stv.diff svar new_svar in
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              let ef = expr info (Stv.union svar new_svar) ef.e_mask ef in
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              { Mltree.rec_sym  = rs1;  Mltree.rec_rsym = rs2;
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                Mltree.rec_args = args; Mltree.rec_exp  = ef;
                Mltree.rec_res  = res;  Mltree.rec_svar = new_svar; }
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          | _ -> assert false in
        let rdefl = List.map def rdefl in
        if rdefl <> [] then
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          let ein = expr info svar mask ein in
          let ml_letrec = Mltree.Elet (Mltree.Lrec rdefl, ein) in
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          ML.mk_expr ml_letrec (Mltree.I e.e_ity) e.e_effect lbl
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        else expr info svar mask ein
    | Eexec ({c_node = Capp (rs, [])}, _)  when is_rs_tuple rs ->
        ML.e_unit
    | Eexec ({c_node = Capp (rs, pvl)}, _) when is_rs_tuple rs ->
        let pvl = pv_list_of_mask pvl mask in
        let pvl = ML.var_list_of_pv_list pvl in
        ML.e_app rs pvl (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl (* FIXME : new type *)
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    | Eexec ({c_node = Capp (rs, _)}, _)
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    when is_empty_record info rs || rs_ghost rs ->
      ML.e_unit
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    | Eexec ({c_node = Capp (rs, pvl); c_cty = cty}, _)
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      when isconstructor info rs && cty.cty_args <> [] ->
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        (* partial application of constructors *)
        mk_eta_expansion rs pvl cty
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    | Eexec ({c_node = Capp (rs, pvl); _}, _) ->
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        let pvl = app pvl rs.rs_cty.cty_args in
        begin match pvl with
          | [pv_expr] when is_optimizable_record_rs info rs -> pv_expr
          | _ -> ML.e_app rs pvl (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl end
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    | Eexec ({c_node = Cfun e; c_cty = {cty_args = []}}, _) ->
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        (* abstract block *)
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        expr info svar e.e_mask e
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    | Eexec ({c_node = Cfun e; c_cty = cty}, _) ->
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        ML.e_fun (params cty.cty_args) (expr info svar e.e_mask e)
          (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
    | Eexec ({c_node = Cany}, _) ->
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        ML.mk_hole
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    | Eabsurd ->
        ML.e_absurd (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Ecase (e1, bl) when e_ghost e1 ->
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        (* if [e1] is ghost but the entire [match-with] expression doesn't,
           it must be the case the first branch is irrefutable *)
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        (match bl with
         | [] -> assert false | (_, e) :: _ -> expr info svar e.e_mask e)
    | Ecase (e1, pl) -> let pl = List.map (ebranch info svar mask) pl in
        ML.e_match (expr info svar e1.e_mask e1) pl (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Eassert _ ->
        ML.e_unit
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    | Eif (e1, e2, e3) when e_ghost e1 ->
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        (* if [e1] is ghost but the entire [if-then-else] expression doesn't,
           it must be the case one of the branches is [Eabsurd] *)
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        if e2.e_node = Eabsurd then expr info svar mask e3
        else expr info svar mask e2
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    | Eif (e1, e2, e3) when e_ghost e3 ->
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        let e1 = expr info svar e1.e_mask e1 in
        let e2 = expr info svar mask e2 in
        ML.e_if e1 e2  ML.e_unit eff lbl
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    | Eif (e1, e2, e3) when e_ghost e2 ->
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        let e1 = expr info svar e1.e_mask e1 in
        let e3 = expr info svar mask e3 in
        ML.e_if e1 ML.e_unit e3 eff lbl
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    | Eif (e1, e2, e3) ->
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        let e1 = expr info svar e1.e_mask e1 in
        let e2 = expr info svar mask e2 in
        let e3 = expr info svar mask e3 in
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        ML.e_if e1 e2 e3 eff lbl
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    | Ewhile (e1, _, _, e2) ->
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        assert (mask = MaskVisible);
        let e1 = expr info svar e1.e_mask e1 in
        let e2 = expr info svar e2.e_mask e2 in
        ML.e_while e1 e2 eff lbl
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    | Efor (pv1, (pv2, dir, pv3), _, _, efor) ->
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        assert (mask = MaskVisible);
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        let dir = for_direction dir in
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        let efor = expr info svar efor.e_mask efor in
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        ML.e_for pv1 pv2 dir pv3 efor eff lbl
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    | Eghost _ | Epure _ -> assert false
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    | Eassign al ->
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        let rm_ghost (_, rs, _) = not (rs_ghost rs) in
        let al = List.filter rm_ghost al in
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        ML.e_assign al (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Etry (etry, case, pvl_e_map) ->
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        assert (not case); (* TODO *)
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        let etry = expr info svar mask etry in
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        let bl   =
          let bl_map = Mxs.bindings pvl_e_map in
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          let mk_bl_map (xs, (pvl, e)) = xs, pvl, expr info svar mask e in
          List.map mk_bl_map bl_map in
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        ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Etry (etry, bl)) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Eraise (xs, ex) ->
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        (* let ex = exp_of_mask ex xs.xs_mask in *)
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        let ex = expr info svar xs.xs_mask ex in
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        let ex = match ex with
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          | {Mltree.e_node = Mltree.Eblock []} -> None
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          | e -> Some e in
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        ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Eraise (xs, ex)) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Eexn (xs, e1) ->
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        if mask_ghost e1.e_mask then ML.mk_expr
            (Mltree.Eexn (xs, None, ML.e_unit)) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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        else let e1 = expr info svar xs.xs_mask e1 in
          let ty = if ity_equal xs.xs_ity ity_unit then None
            else Some (mlty_of_ity xs.xs_mask xs.xs_ity) in
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        ML.mk_expr (Mltree.Eexn (xs, ty, e1)) (Mltree.I e.e_ity) eff lbl
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    | Elet (LDsym (_, {c_node=(Cany|Cpur (_, _)); _ }), _)
    | Eexec ({c_node=Cpur (_, _); _ }, _) -> ML.mk_hole
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  and ebranch info svar mask ({pp_pat = p; pp_mask = m}, e) =
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    (* if the [case] expression is not ghost but there is (at least) one ghost
       branch, then it must be the case that all the branches return [unit]
       and at least one of the non-ghost branches is effectful *)
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    if e.e_effect.eff_ghost then (pat m p, ML.e_unit)
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    else (pat m p, expr info svar mask e)
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  (* type declarations/definitions *)
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  let tdef itd =
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    let s = itd.itd_its in
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    let ddata_constructs = (* point-free *)
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      List.map (fun ({rs_cty = cty} as rs) ->
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          rs.rs_name,
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          let args = List.filter pv_not_ghost cty.cty_args in
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          List.map (fun {pv_vs = vs} -> type_ vs.vs_ty) args) in
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    let drecord_fields ({rs_cty = cty} as rs) =
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      (List.exists (pv_equal (fd_of_rs rs)) s.its_mfields),
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      rs.rs_name,
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      mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask cty.cty_result in
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    let id = s.its_ts.ts_name in
    let is_private = s.its_private in
    let args = s.its_ts.ts_args in
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    begin match s.its_def, itd.itd_constructors, itd.itd_fields with
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      | NoDef, [], [] ->
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          ML.mk_its_defn id args is_private None
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      | NoDef, cl, [] ->
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          let cl = ddata_constructs cl in
          ML.mk_its_defn id args is_private (Some (Mltree.Ddata cl))
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      | NoDef, _, pjl ->
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          let p e = not (rs_ghost e) in
          let pjl = filter_ghost_params p drecord_fields pjl in
          begin match pjl with
            | [] -> ML.mk_its_defn id args is_private
                      (Some (Mltree.Dalias ML.tunit))
            | [_, _, ty_pj] when is_optimizable_record_itd itd ->
                ML.mk_its_defn id args is_private (Some (Mltree.Dalias ty_pj))
            | pjl ->
                ML.mk_its_defn id args is_private (Some (Mltree.Drecord pjl))
          end
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      | Alias t, _, _ ->
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          ML.mk_its_defn id args is_private (* FIXME ? is this a good mask ? *)
            (Some (Mltree.Dalias (mlty_of_ity MaskVisible t)))
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      | Range r, [], [] ->
          assert (args = []); (* a range type is not polymorphic *)
          ML.mk_its_defn id [] is_private (Some (Mltree.Drange r))
      | Float ff, [], [] ->
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          assert (args = []); (* a float type is not polymorphic *)
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          ML.mk_its_defn id [] is_private (Some (Mltree.Dfloat ff))
      | (Range _ | Float _), _, _ ->
          assert false (* cannot have constructors or fields *)
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    end
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  let is_val = function
    | Eexec ({c_node = Cany}, _) -> true
    | _ -> false

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  (* pids: identifiers from cloned modules without definitions *)
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  let pdecl info pd =
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    match pd.pd_node with
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    | PDlet (LDvar (_, e)) when e_ghost e ->
        []
    | PDlet (LDvar (pv, e)) when pv.pv_ghost ->
        if eff_pure e.e_effect then []
        else let unit_ = create_pvsymbol (id_fresh "()") ity_unit in
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          [Mltree.Dlet (Mltree.Lvar (unit_, expr info Stv.empty e.e_mask e))]
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    | PDlet (LDvar (pv, e)) ->
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        [Mltree.Dlet (Mltree.Lvar (pv, expr info Stv.empty e.e_mask e))]
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    | PDlet (LDsym (rs, _)) when rs_ghost rs ->
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        []
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    | PDlet (LDsym ({rs_cty = cty} as rs, {c_node = Cany})) ->
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        let args = params cty.cty_args in
        let res = mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask cty.cty_result in
        [Mltree.Dlet (Mltree.Lany (rs, res, args))]
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    | PDlet (LDsym ({rs_cty = cty} as rs, {c_node = Cfun e}))
      when is_val e.e_node -> (* zero argument functions *)
        let res = mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask cty.cty_result in
        [Mltree.Dlet (Mltree.Lany (rs, res, []))]
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    | PDlet (LDsym ({rs_cty = cty} as rs, {c_node = Cfun e})) ->
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        let args = params cty.cty_args in
        let res = mlty_of_ity cty.cty_mask cty.cty_result in
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        let svar =
          let args' = List.map (fun (_, ty, _) -> ty) args in
          let svar  = List.fold_left add_tvar Stv.empty args' in
          add_tvar svar res in
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        let e = expr info svar cty.cty_mask e in
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        [Mltree.Dlet (Mltree.Lsym (rs, res, args, e))]
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    | PDlet (LDrec rl) ->
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        let rl = filter_out_ghost_rdef rl in
        let def {rec_fun = e; rec_sym = rs1; rec_rsym = rs2} =
          let e = match e.c_node with Cfun e -> e | _ -> assert false in
          let args = params rs1.rs_cty.cty_args in
          let res  = mlty_of_ity rs1.rs_cty.cty_mask rs1.rs_cty.cty_result in
          let svar =
            let args' = List.map (fun (_, ty, _) -> ty) args in
            let svar  = List.fold_left add_tvar Stv.empty args' in
            add_tvar svar res in
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          let e = expr info svar rs1.rs_cty.cty_mask e in
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          { Mltree.rec_sym  = rs1;  Mltree.rec_rsym = rs2;
            Mltree.rec_args = args; Mltree.rec_exp  = e;
            Mltree.rec_res  = res;  Mltree.rec_svar = svar; } in
        if rl = [] then [] else [Mltree.Dlet (Mltree.Lrec (List.map def rl))]
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    | PDlet (LDsym _) | PDpure ->
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        []
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    | PDtype itl ->
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        let itsd = List.map tdef itl in
        [Mltree.Dtype itsd]
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    | PDexn xs ->
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        if ity_equal xs.xs_ity ity_unit || xs.xs_mask = MaskGhost then
          [Mltree.Dexn (xs, None)]
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        else [Mltree.Dexn (xs, Some (mlty_of_ity xs.xs_mask xs.xs_ity))]
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  let pdecl_m m pd =
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    let info = { Mltree.from_mod = Some m; Mltree.from_km = m.mod_known; } in
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    pdecl info pd
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  (* unit module declarations *)
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  let rec mdecl info = function
    | Udecl pd -> pdecl info pd
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    | Uscope (_, ([Uuse _] | [Uclone _])) -> []
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    | Uscope (s, dl) -> let dl = List.concat (List.map (mdecl info) dl) in
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        [Mltree.Dmodule (s, dl)]
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    | Uuse _ | Uclone _ | Umeta _ -> []
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  (* modules *)
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  let module_ m =
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    let from = { Mltree.from_mod = Some m; Mltree.from_km = m.mod_known; } in
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    let mod_decl = List.concat (List.map (mdecl from) m.mod_units) in
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    let add_decl known_map decl = let idl = ML.get_decl_name decl in
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      List.fold_left (ML.add_known_decl decl) known_map idl in
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    let mod_known = List.fold_left add_decl Mid.empty mod_decl in {
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      Mltree.mod_from = from;
      Mltree.mod_decl = mod_decl;