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ALLGO containers
================

Overview
--------

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A minimal deployment of allgo consists of 6 docker images:
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- **allgo/redis**     : the redis application server 
- **allgo/django**    : the django application server 
- **allgo/mysql**     : the mysql database server
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- **allgo/controller**: the manager for user docker containers
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- **allgo/ssh**       : the ssh frontend (giving access to the sandboxes)
- **allgo/toolbox**   : an image containing a set of commands (scp, vi, nano,
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  less, ...) to be mounted in the user sandboxes
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These images may be deployed multiple times to implement multiple independent
environments (eg: production, qualification, ...).

Additionally there are two images that are meant to be deployed only once (they
may serve multiple environments)

- **allgo/registry**: the docker registry
- **allgo/nginx**: the frontal http server

There is an extra image used only in development:

- **allgo/smtpsink**: a SMTP server that catches and stores all incoming messages into a single mailbox

Each environment has its own docker network. The nginx container is connected
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to all these networks.
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Conventions
-----------

All docker images use the following conventions.

### External volumes

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Their data are stored in:
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  - `/vol/rw` for persistent data
  - `/vol/ro` for persistent data in read-only access
  - `/vol/cache` for cache data (persistent data that may be destroyed at any time without any consequence)
  - `/vol/log` for the logs

These paths are expected to be mounted as external volumes, either separately (typical for a production deployment) or with a single mount at `/vol` (typical for a development environment). The owner of external volumes must be the same as the uid used for the app inside the container.

### Admin scripts

Each container may contain a set of scripts for admin purpose (especially for managing the content of external volumes)

  - `/dk/container_init` initialise the content of the external volumes (eg: create and seed a database, write a default config, ...)
  - `/dk/image_upgrade` apply security upgrades to the image. This command is expected to exit with 0 if successful and to output something on stdout/stderr when something was upgraded an nothing if nothing was upgraded (thus if the output is empty, it is not necessary to commit a new image). 



Development environment
-----------------------

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The development environment is managed with docker-compose. There are 2 important files:
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 - `docker-compose.yml` the docker-compose configuration
 - `bootstrap` the bootstrap script

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It provides 8 containers:
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 - `dev-controller`
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 - `dev-mysql`
 - `dev-nginx`
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 - `dev-docker`
 - `dev-reddit`
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 - `dev-registry`
 - `dev-smtpsink`
 - `dev-ssh`

All external volumes are stored in `/data/dev/` (the path is absolute because
it is tricky to use a relative path with the allgo/docker image).

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For convenience, all containers not running as root (django, mysql, registry)
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have their user overridden to the UID:GID of the developer running
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docker-compose. This is managed with the `DOCKERUSER` environment variable set
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[in the `.env` file](https://docs.docker.com/compose/environment-variables/#the-env-file) by
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`prepare.sh`.
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For convenience (again), there is an extra external volume for `dev-django`,
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`dev-controller` and `dev-ssh` so that the source directory of the app is mounted
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inside `/opt/` (in fact it overrides the actual application files provided by
the docker image). The purpose is to avoid rebuilding a new docker image for
each development iteration. 


### Getting started

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The sources are located in one repository:
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 - *allgo*: the deployment repository

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To set up the development environment, run: 

 1. get the sources
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	<pre>
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	git clone git@gitlab.inria.fr:allgo/allgo.git
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	cd allgo
	</pre>

 2. *(as root)* create `/data/dev` and make it owned by the developer
	<pre>
	sudo mkdir -p    /data/dev
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	sudo chown $USER: /data/dev
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	</pre>

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 3. bootstrap the environment
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	<pre>
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	./bootstrap
	</pre>
	This command will run the `/dk/init_container` in every container that
	needs it, then start the container.

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	The first run takes a few minutes because all images are built from
	scratch.
	You may have enough time for a short coffee break.
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	**Note** by default `bootstrap` works on all containers. It is possible
	to give an explicit list of containers instead. Example:
	<pre>
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		./bootstrap dev-mysql dev-django
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	</pre>

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 4. for convenience, you may want to alias `docker-compose` as `fig` (because
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     `fig` is much faster to type than `docker-compose` and you will have to
     type it a lot). Somewhere in your `.bashrc` you should add:
	<pre>
	alias fig=docker-compose
	</pre>

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 5. after bootstrap, in development the db is initialised with three users (all with the password `allgo`):
    - `admin@localhost` which is superuser
    - `devel@localhost` which is the owner of a webapp named `sleep`
    - `guest@localhost`

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### Common commands

The official doc for docker-compose is available at: [https://docs.docker.com/compose/
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](https://docs.docker.com/compose/)
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 - start all containers (in the background)
	<pre>
	fig up -d
	</pre>

 - start all containers (in the foreground, i.e interactively, when you hit Ctrl-C all containers are stop)
	<pre>
	fig up -d
	</pre>

 - soft cleanup (stop and remove all containers)
	<pre>
	fig down
	</pre>

 - hard cleanup (remove images too)
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	<pre>
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	fig down --rmi local
	</pre>

 - restart a container
	<pre>
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	fig restart dev-django
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	</pre>

 - restart a container using a new docker image (if the image has been rebuilt since the last start)
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	<pre>
	fig up dev-django
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	</pre>

 - rebuild an image
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	<pre>
	fig build dev-django
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	</pre> 

 - **Note:** most commands work on every container by default (eg: up down
   start stop restart ...) they can be use on an individual container too:
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	<pre>
	fig restart dev-controller dev-django
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	</pre>

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 - run a container with an arbitrary command (eg: to have access to the django console)
	<pre>
	fig run --rm dev-django bash
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	</pre>

	**Note:** containers created by `fig run` have the same parameters as
	the referenced containers but their name is different (eg:
	*allgo_dev-ssh_run_1*), which means that this container is not
	reachable by the others (this may be an issue for example if you want
	to run the mysqld server manually: `fig run dev-mysql mysqld` -> this
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	container won't be reachable by the ssh and django containers)
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 - follow the output of all containers:
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	<pre>
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	fig logs --tail=1 --follow
	</pre>

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### Troubleshooting

#### Fedora OS: docker.sock usable by root user only

The docker socket `/run/docker.sock` for interacting with the docker daemon is
owned by `root:root` with `0600` permissions. Only the root user can use it

To use it as an ordinary user, create the `docker` group, then the docker
engine will automatically make its socket owned by `root:docker`. Users who are
members of the docker group will be able to use it. 

To do so you must run the following commands :

<pre>sudo groupadd docker</pre>

Edit the group to add the relevant users to the `docker` group (add them at the
end of the line starting with `docker:`, separated by commas)

<pre>sudo vigr</pre>

Re-open your session (to be effectively in the docker group)


#### **dev-mysql** initialisation fails

The `prepare.sh` script (also sourced by the `./bootstrap` script) creates the
`/data/dev/*/` with the ownership set to the calling user. **Be sure not to run
it as root**, otherwise it will be owned by root and you may have errors like:

	mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/vol/rw’: Permission denied
	mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/vol/log’: Permission denied

If somehow you skipped this step, you can reset the ownership to the current user:

	sudo chown    USER: /data/dev
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	sudo chown -R USER: /data/dev/{registry,mysql,django}
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If you are completely lost, you can just restart the initialisation from scratch:

	fig down
	sudo rm -rf /data/dev
	. prepare.sh
	./bootstrap
 


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Production environment
----------------------

- TODO unicorn/nginx integration
- TODO use capistrano too ?


Images design
-------------


## registry

Hosts docker registry with a nginx configured as a reverse proxy. It listens to 4 ports:

 - :8000 (*production*) access limited to `/v2/allgo/prod/`
 - :8001 (*qualification*) access limited to `/v2/allgo/qualif/`
 - :8002 (*development*)  access limited to `/v2/allgo/dev`
 - :5000 (*legacy production*) access limited to `/v2/allgo`(which is mapped to `/v2/allgo/prod/`)

## mysql

Hosts a mysql server listening on port 3306 with two databases: `allgo` and
`allgo_test` and two users: `allgo` and `ssh`.

 - `allgo` has read/write access to both databases
 - `ssh` has read only access to `allgo`


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## django
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Hosts three daemons for running the allgo web server:
 
- a nginx frontend for buffering the HTTP requests/responses and routing them
  to the other daemons. It also serves static files directly
- the gunicorn server (running the django application)
- the allgo.aio server (serving the asynchronous requests)

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### Running the django server manually
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TODO ?
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[comment]: # ( - run the `dev-rails` container and open a shell:
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	<pre>
	fig up -d
	docker exec -t -i  dev-rails bash
	</pre>

 - then, inside the container, run:
	<pre>
	supervisorctl stop rails
	rails server
	</pre>
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)
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## ssh

Hosts the ssh front server for accessing the sandboxes (`ssh
WEBAPP@sid.allgo.irisa.fr`). Each allgo webapp is mapped to a system user
(using Glibc NSS) starting at uid 2000.

- `/etc/passwd` and `/etc/group` are overriden so as to contain only the two users (*root* and *sshd*) and one group (*nogroup*) required to run the ssh server
- Extra users are obtained from the mysql database (using libnss-mysql-bg) and mapped as follows:
	<pre>
	name  = webapps.docker_name
	uid   = webapps.id
	gid   = 65534 (nogroup)
	gecos = webapps.name
	shell = /bin/allgo-shell
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	</pre>
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- The ssh server is configured to accept key-based authentication only. The
  list of public keys is obtained from the (using an AuthorizedKeysCommand).

- The forced shell (`allgo-shell`) connects to the webapp sandbox (if running).

- The connection to the sandbox is made though a unix socket and a set of pipes
  in the filesystem.

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## controller
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Hosts the *docker-controller* which manages all docker operations (run, stop,
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rm, commit, pull, push, ...) on behalf of the django container.
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Technically speaking this container has root privileges since it has access to
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the docker socket.

The proxy script enforces restrictions (according to the current environment: eg prod/qualif/dev) on:

 - the registry (for pulling/pushing)
 - the paths of external volumes 
 - the container names (*ENV*-user-*XXXX*)

## nginx

Hosts the frontal nginx server, its purpose is to:
- give access to one or more allgo instances
- manage TLS encryption

## smtpsink

Hosts a SMTP server (port 25) and an IMAP server (port 143) for
development/qualification

Its purpose is to channel all outgoing mail (received on port 25) into a single
mailbox.

The mailbox is accessible with IMAP as user *sink* (password *sink*).